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A novel swimming pool water treatment for the detection and elimination of excess cyanuric acid

Final Report Summary - POOLSAFE (A novel swimming pool water treatment for the detection and elimination of excess cyanuric acid.)

Executive Summary:

Microorganisms in swimming pool water can pose a serious health threat and pool disinfection is therefore compulsory by law in all developed countries. The most common disinfectant is chlorine, which is always found in its active form, hypochlorous acid (HOCl), in pool water. HOCl is rapidly decomposed by UV light, losing its bactericide effect, and a continuous supply is needed to maintain safe levels of microorganisms in pool water.
Cyanuric acid (CYA) stabilises HOCl and is added to pool water to slow down the degradation of HOCl. CYA does not degrade however, and the CYA concentration therefore rises steadily over time. At high CYA levels, chlorine is overstablished, rendering it ineffective as a disinfectant. This increases the risk of recreational water illnesses (RWIs) and acceptable levels of CYA are therefore regulated by law. Currently the only viable solution to this problem is to replace some of the pool water with fresh water, which poses environmental concerns due to the large consumption of water this implies. The effects of high CYA levels also have a negative effect on the image of the swimming pool facility and can lead to a loss of business. There is therefore a strong need to find a way to break down CYA in pool water.

POOLSAFE will provide an effective and efficient solution to the CYA problem through the development of a soft sensor to monitor the levels of CYA and other pool water quality parameters, as well as a simple, cost-effective method for degrading excess CYA, using photocatalysis. With its two-fold method of ensuring that CYA never reach a hazardous level, POOLSAFE will reduce the environmental impact of swimming pool maintenance by eliminating the need to periodically replace the pool water, provide improved safety to bathers by ensuring that chlorine lock and the subsequent lack of sanitation is prevented, and ensure compliance with health and safety regulations for pool water.

POOLSAFE proposal has been promoted by four industrial SMEs, Diasa Industrial-DIASA (SP), T.E. Laboratories-TELL (IR), Euro Filtr’eaux-FILT (FR), Ocio Sport Rioja-OCIO (SP) acting as end user, and two Research Centres, Instituto de Biologia Experimental e Tecnologica-iBET (PT) and Tecnologías Avanzadas Inspiralia S.L-INSP (SP).

The POOLSAFE Project has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme managed by REA Research Executive Agency, FP7-SME-2011-BSG, under Grant Agreement n° [604884]

Project Context and Objectives:
POOLSAFE will provide an effective and efficient solution to the CYA problem through the development of a soft sensor to monitor the levels of CYA and other pool water quality parameters, as well as a simple, cost-effective method for degrading excess CYA, using photocatalysis. With its two-fold method of ensuring that CYA never reach a hazardous level, POOLSAFE will reduce the environmental impact of swimming pool maintenance by eliminating the need to periodically replace the pool water, provide improved safety to bathers by ensuring that chlorine lock and the subsequent lack of sanitation is prevented, and ensure compliance with health and safety regulations for pool water.

From the times when our ancestors sought out the seashore and the banks of rivers to settle, people have always been instinctively drawn to water and activities in and around water form an integral part of the sports, health and wellness, leisure and tourism industries in our modern-day world. In the Netherlands, for example, it is estimated that there are between 88 and 150 million pool visits per year, and statistics indicate that about 140 million people swim in Europe (roughly 20% of the population) . Water is also a popular tourist attraction in Europe, and nearly 70% of European tourists spend their holidays at a waterside location, mostly within other European countries. While natural bodies of water such as lakes, rivers and the sea are probably the first choice of most people, not everyone has regular access to them. As a result, swimming pools have become an increasingly important element in the lifestyles of the average consumer in the Western world, and are found in residential homes, gyms, spas, municipal sports facilities, wellness centres, camping grounds, hotels, universities and schools.
On a global level there are around 13 million swimming pools, approximately 4.4 million (29%) of which are found in Europe. North America represents 59% of the global market, while the rest of the world has only 1.65 million swimming pools (12%) . According to the European Union of Swimming Pool and Spa associations (EUSA), France has the most swimming pools in Europe (1.5 million, 34% of the European total), followed by Spain (27%), Germany (20%), Italy (6%) and the UK (5%).
In the USA, where the middle class tend to live in houses with gardens, residential swimming pools represent over 95% of the market. In Europe however, the population density is much greater and most people live in flats or apartments, so the use of communal pools (either municipal or private) is more widespread. In Germany 250-300 million people visit public pools each year. In the UK, 33% of children and 36% of adults visit swimming pools at least once a week and 55% of children use pools at least once a month. A large city like Paris can have up to 38 public pools, and a public pool can have as many as 1400 visitors on a busy Sunday in summer. Public swimming pools therefore have a large social impact, contributing significantly to the health and wellbeing of the European population, by promoting an active, healthy and relaxing leisure activity for all ages and social classes.
It is not surprising therefore that the annual turnover of the Pool and Spa Industry is in excess of 10€ billion. In addition to the municipal facilities, about 2.5 million privately owned swimming pool facilities exist in Europe and the companies in this business sector are almost exclusively SMEs. It is one of the few areas in which the employment figures are still growing and in addition, it secures associated jobs at regional and local suppliers, which makes it an economically significant sector for Europe in light of the current global economic crisis. The sector faces a number of challenges however, which need to be overcome if its current growth and strength are to be maintained. In areas that have been hard hit by the crisis, such as Spain, the elevated costs of maintenance and the decrease in revenues has obliged many municipalities to privatise the management of the municipal swimming pools, and in some cases even to close them. There are also some unresolved technological issues related to pool water treatment which affect the competitiveness of the industry and industries dependent on it. In the health and wellness and tourism industries in particular, where image is extremely important, the quality of the swimming pool can have a significant effect on the commercial success of a business. It is these technological issues and their social, environmental and economic impact that we will address with POOLSAFE.

The Problem
The large number of public pools in Europe and the social impact of water-related activities and swimming pools to the European population have made the health and safety of bathers a matter of public and political concern. While we tend to think of drowning and accidents as the main hazards of a swimming pool, poor swimming pool water quality can also have a detrimental effect on the health of bathers. Chemical pool water disinfection is therefore mandatory by law throughout Europe and strictly regulated on a national level by the health authorities, with the most common disinfectant being chlorine. Organizations such as WHO and EEA (European Environmental Agency) also regularly publish guidelines and studies on safe recreational water environments and bathing water quality , and a European Bathing Water Quality Directive (2006/7/EC) exists to monitor and manage bathing water quality and public awareness of it. This directive is complementary to the main European directive on water protection and management, the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC).
One of the main dangers of inadequate pool water quality control is that of recreational water illnesses (RWIs). Microorganisms continually introduced into the pool water by bathers and other agents pose a health hazard that can lead to a number of diseases, including Gastroenteritis, Dysentery, Cholera, Typhoid, Hepatitis A and Dermatitis. Although there are no statistics available for Europe, a recent study shows that there were 742 RWI outbreaks in the Netherlands between 1991 and 2007 (17 years), resulting in the 5623 people becoming ill. This is an average of 44 outbreaks and 331 patients per year. In the USA a total of 78 RWI outbreaks affecting 4,412 persons were reported to the CDC for 2005-2006. The potential for illness is greatly increase by factors such as inadequate levels of halogen-based disinfectants in the pool, high bather loads, use of the pool by infected people, lack of adequate hygiene levels by bathers and imbalances in the pool water chemistry. Children (because of the time they spend in the water), pregnant women and tourists (due to their lack of immunity to local diseases) are particularly susceptible, and Europe’s high population density and many communal pools mean that both the risk of illness and the consequences in terms of the number of people affected are high.
The complexity of pool water chemistry, the large number of organic and inorganic species present in pool water, and the dependence of these species on external factors, make it very difficult to monitor and control the pool water quality, and many of the disease outbreaks and health problems associated with pool water are a result of insufficient management of pool water quality. The problem is exacerbated by the fact that in most cases, the people in charge of this task do not have the scientific knowledge to understand complex pool water chemistry. To prevent the spread of illnesses for example, many pool managers over-chlorinate the water, which can also have a detrimental effect on the health of bathers. In a recent case in the USA, 79 people fell ill and 7 children were hospitalised as a result of an incorrect balance of chemicals in the water. In the province of Manitoba, Canada, more than 100 pools were shut down in 2010 for health reasons, with one of the most common reasons being issues with chlorine levels in the water. In some cases, chlorine levels up to 40 times higher than the maximum recommended level were found.
In additional to the social impact, the closure of pools due to RWIs and chemical imbalances can have a large economic impact on the establishment the swimming pool is situated in. The image of a hotel or a health club can be severely damaged by the closure of its pool due to health reasons, and it can take years to recover.

Project Objectives
POOLSAFE will develop a monitoring system to ensure that adequate levels of pool chemicals are maintained at all times, reducing both the risk of RWIs and the health problems caused by the overdosing of pool chemicals.
• POOLSAFE will provide constant monitoring of CYA levels, ensuring that only the absolutely necessary amounts of chlorine and CYA are added to the pool. This will reduce the risk of health related problems caused by overdosing of pool chemicals, as well as provide savings to public pools by reducing spending on unnecessary pool chemicals
• POOLSAFE will be a fully automated system, which will reduce the risk of human error by pool monitors that do not have a technical background taking measurements, as well as save time, since pool water quality measurements will no longer have to be done manually.
• By ensuring that adequate levels of pool chemicals are maintained at all times, POOLSAFE will reduce the risk of RWIs and the associated cost of their treatment
• By eliminate excess CYA before it reaches unacceptable levels, POOLSAFE will eliminate the need for periodic pool water purging, saving pool managers money and providing environmental and societal benefits through water savings.
• The elimination of excess CYA before it reaches unacceptable levels, therefore maintaining adequate pool sanitation, will also preventing the formation of algae and the degradation of pool plaster.
• By ensuring pristine pool water conditions at all time, POOLSAFE will improve the image of establishments using this method, thereby increasing their revenues.
• POOLSAFE will help pool managers meet the pool water quality regulations by maintaining CYA level at all-time well below legal limits and reducing the use of other pool water chemicals such as chlorine.

Project Results:
POOLSAFE project started on July 1st 2014 and it is structured into six work packages with a total duration of 24 months.

The most remarkable results achieved are:
• A lab-scale system was built with controlled temperature in order to mimic the conditions of a swimming pool and a multi sensor was used to assess on-line different parameters such as: pH, temperature, conductivity, turbidity, Oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) and dissolved oxygen (DO). Data from the sensor system was acquired during three months continuous monitoring.
• Additional experiments were performed in order to acquire the response of the on-line parameters (using the same multi sensor) in real swimming pool samples (collected in a cyanuric acid free swimming pool, used for swimming lessons of babies and children) supplemented with different concentrations of cyanuric acid.
• The data acquired was used for the development of multivariate statistically-based models, through projection to latent structures (PLS), in order to correlate the on-line measurements from different water samples with their respective cyanuric acid concentration.
• We found out that the best approach to predict the cyanuric acid concentration is based on a non-linear PLS model using quadratic and interaction terms of the input parameters.
• The cyanuric acid (CYA) is predicted in mg/L, based on temperature (T), in Celsius degrees, pH, in its adimentional units, and conductivity (Cond), in mS/cm.
• Two mathematical models were developed based on on-line measurements given by the commercial multi-sensor HORIBA U-52. Both models resulted from non-linear PLS modelling using quadratic and interaction terms of the inputs, and were developed using data from: the lab-scale pool, pool water samples (used for children swimming classes and taken daily and supplemented in the lab with different amounts of cyanuric acid), and water samples from an exterior open-air swimming pool treated with Diaclor and used daily by a family with 4 children.
• A wide number of catalysts were synthesised based on the following synthetic approaches: a) Mixtures of TiO2 with other metal oxides (SnO2 or ZnO), b) Metal-doped TiO2 (NF, Fe, Ag, Zn, W, Sn) and combination of both types of catalysts.
• The synthesised catalysts were all characterized by physical and chemical techniques (X-Ray, SEM, BET, UV absorption) and their efficiency in the degradation of CYA as pure materials checked.
• Some of the best catalysts according to their degradation efficiency under UV light irradiation were deposited or immobilised on different surfaces and substrates glass slides, aluminium sheets and monoliths by dip-coating and wet impregnation.
• The catalyst-coated substrates were characterized by XRD, SEM, BET and Raman and the photocatalytic efficiency was studied for the degradation of cyanuric acid (CYA) in an UV chamber under irradiation with three UV lamps of 8W (300nm<λmax<400nm) with a maximum at 370 nm and the reaction was monitored using gas chromatography technique.
• Regarding coated monoliths, the photonic efficiencies are between 8.25E-5 and 7.01E-4 more than one order of magnitude respect to glass coated samples. The best results for the degradation of CYA were achieved using monoliths coated with TiO2-P25 and 50%ZnO-P123 TiO2-P25. For the first monoliths the total degradation of CYA has been achieved after 72h. In the case of monoliths coated with 50%ZnO-P123 TiO2-P25, the total amount of CYA was adsorbed in the first 24h but after further loading of CYA the concentration decreased down to 6ppm in another 48h.
• The synthesised P25 microballs showed the highest photonic efficiency (around 1E-3%). However, in the degradation of the CYA this was partially adsorbed in the first 24h and after 48h under UV light the concentration decreased to 10ppm.
• Two lab-scale reactors were built based on two designs: annular fixed bed (in order to have a packed-bed reactor using substrates such as monoliths, trilobes, microballs or Raschig rings coated by the photocatalyst) and a fluid bed reactor (the solid catalyst is placed under appropriated conditions to cause a solid/fluid mixture to behave as a fluid).
• The lab-scale installation included a magnetic pump, a box with several UV lamps, a light collector and a flowmeter, in order to be able to control flows between 1-30L/h.
• A Factorial design of experiments has been developed in order to make a sweep of the most important parameters that can affect to CYA degradation. In our case, we have selected CYA concentration, flow rate and irradiance as the most important parameters that can affect the photocatalytic activity.
• Microballs synthesised in task 2.1 and 2.2 have been tested with the fluid bed reactor, but not degradation of CYA has been found.
• Catalysts based on coated trilobes, have been tested in a fixed bed annular reactor. The best result was achieved with trilobes coated with the catalysts TiO2 P123- 50%ZnO-5%P25. The conditions studied by design of experiments have been Flow rate, CYA concentration and irradiance reaching the maximum of degradation at 18L/h, 40 ppm of CYA and 24W/m2 of irradiance. The efficiency of the catalyst during the first 12h was close to 62%.
• The results obtained in Task 2.4 (characterization of CYA degradation under various conditions) were used as input in the final design and simulation of the photocatalytic reactor performance.
• It was analysed the photoreactor initial sizing and configuration analysis and the CFD analysis at the reactor level.
• An initial mass balance analysis that involves the relation between the volumes (of the pool and the photoreactor) and CYA degradation, to achieve the defined goal (total degradation in the pool) was performed. Different case studies related to the required water treatment volumes and its CYA concentration degradation out from the photoreactor were obtained.
• Following the volume and concentration requirements, and the inputs obtained from the lab experiments the geometric parameters (radius, length, flow rates, etc.) were defined: Water volume treated (30%), CYA degradation out from the reactor (33%), Flow rate (450l/h), Int-Ext radios (15-80mm), Length required (24m), N of loops (8.5). Thus the most potential configuration selected will have 12 tubes 2m long and will be 40° inclined with respect to the surface.
• A study by means of numerical simulations, more specifically, through a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis provided by ANSYS FLUENT was carried out to optimize the hydrodynamic performance of the photocatalytic reactor.
• This CFD study helped to find the optimized design for the final annular reactor prototype. The most potential design is the one with two inlets and two outlets in the annular plane due to the appearing lower pressure drop, while the residence time remains constant.
• Scale-up for this design was tested varying bed length of catalysts and inlet/outlet pipe diameters. It is clear that higher bed lengths are preferred, but a trade-off between pressure drop, flow uniformity and bed length is needed. Finally a bed length of 1.8 m and a diameter of 4.5 cm for inlet/outlet tubes is suggested based on trade-off between pressure drop and flow uniformity.
• The POOLSAFE Multi-Sensor prototype was built based on the Arduino platform (open-source electronics hardware and software platform) and measures six parameters (directly: temperature, pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, oxidation-reduction potential; and indirectly: CYA) and acts as control system based on the CYA values.
• The prototype was developed to be used with commercially available probes from Atlas Scientific which are connected to the five ports located in the right side of the prototype.
• The ranges and accuracies of the five probes used are: pH (0 – 14, Accuracy: ± 0.02); Temperature (-20 - 133 ºC, Accuracy: ±0.5ºC); Dissolved Oxygen (0.01 - 35.99 mg/L, Accuracy: ±0.2); ORP (-1019.9 mV - 1019.9 mV, Accuracy: ±1mV); Conductivity (0.07 µs/cm - 500000 µs/cm, Accuracy: ±2 µs/cm).
• The final photoreactor prototype was built and comprises: a metallic structure in charge of supporting the photoreactor with two short and two long legs that allows to the photoreactor to be inclined around 40º, two glass tubes of DURAN borosilicate, two UV lamps (Philipps) emitting black light from a fluorescent tube, the photocatalyst based on Trilobes coated by P123 TiO2-50%ZnO-5%P25, two stainless steel pieces to prevent leakage of water and maintaining both glass tubes in parallel, a silicon gasket between the head of reactor and the glass tubes in order to prevent leakage of water and prevent the contact between metallic and glass parts and a metallic spring located in one side of the reactor so that if the reactor is heated due to the sunlight or UV lamps, the metallic parts could expand and avoid the glass tubes to break.
• The installation of POOLSAFE prototype (photoreactor and sensing system) was carried out on the 10th of May 2016 in a children’s pool due to the smaller volume of water it contains, as well as the high organic load and corresponding high disinfectant and CYA levels required to maintain hygiene standards.
• The performance of this prototype was evaluated by a number of on-site tests carried out at this facility first without users and once the swimming pool was opened to the public under real conditions. Both, the photoreactor and sensor were connected and the standard conditions of water treatment were applied. It was organized that each day at approximately the same time the reading of the sensor device is taken (CYA, T, ORP, Conductivity, DO, pH). Also the content of CYA in the swimming pool will be measured with the photometer in-situ and a sample taken and analysed in the laboratory by GC.
• Using POOLSAFE system has been estimated a 70% of reduction in the waste of water and having CYA under control it is possible saving up to 60% in disinfectant products. The measurement of CYA will not be necessary, therefore a saving on measuring reactant has been estimated in 19.6 €/season.

Potential Impact:
POOLSAFE Consortium is confident that the Project objectives have been met at the end of the project.
POOLSAFE expected foreground consist of a device with an automated electronic control based on a new multi-parameter soft sensor to monitor the levels of CYA and other pool water quality parameters and a photocatalytic reactor for the degradation of CYA excess using photocatalysis.
It is clear the potential impact of POOLSAFE in the pool water treatment and quality monitoring.
The primary market will be focused on pool water treatment and depuration. Chlorine treated pools from municipals, hotel and health club pools. But potential applications on water treatment and water quality monitoring markets are expected.
By achieving the target objectives POOLSAFE will offer to the quality controllers and swimming pool managers a reliable method for the control of water quality and control of the CYA levels in swimming pool water.
POOLSAFE will contribute to the environmental friendliness of the swimming pool water treatment industry in two ways: (1) By improving the pool water monitoring system, it will reduce the amount of additives required, by ensuring that only the required quantity of CYA is added to the pool; (2) By eliminating excess CYA in pool water POOLSAFE will greatly reduce the amount of water used to
refill swimming pools to reduce CYA levels.
POOLSAFE will also help on the prevention of recreational water illnesses. By ensuring that the CYA levels in the POOLSAFE treated swimming pool are always maintained at acceptable levels,
We will ensure that the disinfecting effect of the chorine is not inhibited, thereby contributing to the increased safety of swimming pool water and a reduction in the number of outbreaks of RWIs due to contaminated swimming pool water.
POOLSAFE will create employment both within the consortium and in the end-user sector. If we assume that for every increase in revenues of 150,000€, one job is created, POOLSAFE can potentially lead to the creation of 288 jobs within the consortium and in supporting companies
(installation, distribution, logistics, etc.). The increased competitiveness of the sports facilities, hotels and health clubs using POOLSAFE will create further employment in these end-user markets.

Some dissemination activities took place during this period:

• POOLSAFE project website.
October 2014
The project website has been live since October 2014 and will be updated on a tri-monthly basis or as new activities take place until project completion.
The publication of project participation on each of the partner’s company websites
• POOLSAFE LinkedIn contact page
February 2015
This was aimed at the professional market which will refer people to the project website. The LinkedIn project page, “POOLSAFE FP7” has been live since February 2015.
• First POOLSAFE leaflet and press release
February 2015
These were used to promote the project. The POOLSAFE press release and the project leaflet was distributed to all partners in February 2015.
• Contact specific publications in the swimming pool and spa industry to advertise the project in the form of short articles referring the reader to the project website; e.g. FILT made contact with: IRRIJARDIN, late 2015, regarding the inclusion of FILT’s new products in the IRRIJARDIN catalogue, including POOLSAFE.
• POOLSAFE Twitter page
July 2015
A POOLSAFE Twitter page was set up in addition to a LinkedIn page and the project website in Period 1; this gives access to the general public as well as professionals and companies in the pool water industry to the project. It refers people to the project website and also keeps people up to date with the progress of the project; e.g. consortium meetings and deployments. The Twitter page, “@POOLSAFE_FP7” went live in July 2015.
• Second POOLSAFE leaflet
November 2015
The leaflet content and format was finalised. It was translated in English, Portuguese and French. It was distributed to partners in English, Portugese and French. The English leaflet was put up on the website in November 2015.

• Attendance at a number of trade fairs to publicise the project, developments and results.

• All Island Innovation Conference – IntertradeIreland
30th September 2014.
Presentation by TELL

• 8th Annual Micro – Nano Bio Convergence Systems (MNBS), Toulouse, France,
21-22 October 2014. Presentation by TELL. This conference identified clear objectives to bring technologies and solution providers closer to the end user and into the market.

• Water. ‘The Greatest Global Challenge’ Conference at Dublin City University (DCU), 27th-28th November 2014.
Poster abstract submitted by TELL.

• H2020 Environmental Networking Event, Dublin, Ireland
26 June 2015.
TELL had a stand at this networking event held in Enterprise Ireland offices. They presented an Aquawarn poster on the stand and discussed European projects including Poolsafe with companies and researchers. There was about 100 attendees from companies and academic institutes from the UK and Ireland.

• HYRDEOS Water Quality Conference
15th September 2015
Alsace-Lorraine HYDREOS water pole consists of more than 350 businesses, including 5 large groups, who are world leaders in their field, and of numerous participants with international standing, 36,000 employees, including 17,000 in the water authority itself, of 2,500 researchers into the quality of the water and related topics, as well as 4,000 students.
FILT attended this event and had a stand there with Poolsafe leaflets.

• Piscina & Wellness Barcelona
13 – 16th October 2015
Gran Via Exhibition Centre, Barcelona, Spain
Exhibitors and attendees from approximately 100 countries comprising of aquatics facilities, swimming pools and wellness centres were in attendance at congresses, conferences and seminars. In addition to the exhibitors’ booths, the show floor boasted a new products area, the Demo Zone and the Innovation Zone.
DIASA attended this event, where they had a stand with Poolsafe leaflets on display.
DIASA’s director, Javier Peñalver gave several speeches to distributors, customers and visitors explaining the Poolsafe project, its importance and the role of each partner in this project. He also gave a press conference.

The main aim of this fair was to inform as many attendees as possible about the Poolsafe system (photocatalyst reactor and sensor), letting them know that the system could be a real solution to a real problem in public pools.

• EPA National Information Day on H2020 Societal Challenge 5, Dublin, Ireland
21st October 2015.
TELL attended this event and gave a short presentation on TELL’s European projects including Poolsafe.

• Industry Research and Development Group (IRDG) Event, Dublin Ireland
15-17 September 2016
The IRDG is a non-profit, business-led Innovation Network of member companies and colleges, working together to drive excellence in Innovation within Ireland. TELL had a stand at this event where they showcased all of their European projects including Poolsafe.

• Sensors for Water Interest Group (SWIG) Innovation Workshop, University of Warwick
25th November 2015
This SWIG Innovation workshop was organised to bring together academic research groups and interested companies to identify potential technologies, collaboration, and exploitation opportunities in the area of sensor technologies developed for use in water. Breda Moore from TELL attended this event and spoke to researchers about the Poolsafe sensor.

• Arablab, Dubai
20 -23 March 2016
This Trade Show has over 1000 exhibitors and 11,000 visitors. It includes water quality analysers.
TELL attended this event and visited many of the stands and spoke to many attendees relevant to the POOLSAFE device sensor and photoreactor.

• Analytica, Munich
10-13 May 2016
TELL had a stand at Analytica this year with a total of 1,244 exhibitors from 40 countries and 35,000 visitors; they had leaflets at the fair and had great interest as Analytica is still the world's most important trade fair for laboratory technology, analysis including water analysis and biotechnology.

• IRDG Event, Tullow, Ireland
9 Jun 2016
This event was hosted by TELL who gave an overview of R & D within a SME with particular emphasis on the EU funded projects including Poolsafe. Approximately 30 people from industry and academia attended including those from water monitoring, pharmaceutical and IT backgrounds.

• Preparation of scientific publications to validate the project results within the scientific community, with the idea of using the published articles for marketing purposes during exploitation; in order to protect IP, scientific publications were not published during the project. Once the IP is protected appropriately, the RTDs will publish peer reviewed papers.

List of Websites:

Rafael Fernandez
Tel: + 34 941 13 45 49
Fax: + 34 941 13 50 08