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Radiant heating wall-to-wall carpet for energy efficiency space heating of existing non-residential buildings

Final Report Summary - RADCARPET (Radiant heating wall-to-wall carpet for energy efficiency space heating of existing non-residential buildings)

Executive Summary:
For two year the RADCARPET Consortium comprising four European SME´s : R-STAT (France), MAXITEX (Germany), TISCA-TIARA (Switzerland) and CASACLIMA ( Italy) have closely collaborated with two RTD´s: Inspiralia (Spain) and TITV (Germany) in the development of a wall to wall energy efficient radiant heating system for residential and non-residential buildings.
Foreground generation was executed during 7 work packages. Generated foreground was tailored so that results are compatible with SME´s capabilities and facilities. At the end of the project 4 different results were produced including:

- Thermal Conductive fibres.
- Corrosion Resistant Conductive Fibres.
- Electro-thermal heat generating non-wovens.
- RadCarpet wall to wall radiant heating system.

By the end of the project a 25 square meters protoype was installed in CasaClima facilities in Bolzano currently being tested for validation and results optimization before final launch to market.

The Consortium is currenlty adressing its route to market planned for 2018.

Project Context and Objectives:
In the EU, nearly 40% of the energy is consumed by buildings. Energy efficiency in buildings means consuming less and still gives the same level of service. It is at the heart of the EC 2020 Strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. Legislation like the recast of the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD 010/31/EU) will effectively promote energy efficiency in all new buildings: by 2021 all new building will be required by law to be nearly zero energy buildings
(consuming 40-60 kWh/m2). However, the construction rate of new buildings is just 1%, which means that 92% of the building stock from 2005 will still be there in 2020. Therefore, measures must be urgently focused on the renovation of existing buildings. But legislation like the EPBD cannot obligatorily require all existing buildings to be energy-efficiency renovated. In practice Member States can only set minimum energy performance for technical systems (like space heating systems)
and building elements (like walls) when a building is renovated in order to stimulate the transformation into lower energy buildings. Therefore novel technologies for existing buildings must fit in the reality of market, and not the opposite (the case of new building thanks to the EPBD).
In particular, non-residential buildings consume >40% more energy than residential houses. Space heating is the second largest contributor to the energy consumption of non-residential building with a 14% share. Radiant heating floors can save up to 60% of thermal heating energy as shown in section1. In radiant floors, the surface of the floor heats up the room, instead of using radiators near the walls or hot forced-air from the shafts in the ceiling (HVAC). In addition, the perceived thermal
comfort is higher with radiant floors. Today, the current state-of-art radiant floors present the following limitations to be used in the energy-efficiency renovation of existing non-residential European buildings, and we propose RADCARPET as a solution.
RADCARPET will be a radiant heating wall-to-wall carpet for space heating of non-residential buildings, in particular for offices, hotels and educational buildings. RADCARPET radiant heating will save 55% of thermal energy for space heating in large spaces and high ventilation rates due to its flat shape (2 times more efficient heat release that water pipes or electric cables) and the presence of a especial tuft with a very high heat dissipation capacity (large surface area from the multitude of
filaments of a novel polyamide with a thermal conductivity 15 times higher than common synthetic tufts). RADCARPET will consist of four innovations:
Novel conductive fibers: novel corrosion-resistant conductive + novel thermal conductive polyamide fibers.
Heating layer: a non-woven textile that will be flexible and will produce heat by an electro-thermal process powered by electricity.
Tuft carpet with a thermal conductive upper surface (tufted primary backing) made of novel polyamide fibers, the intermediate non-woven heating layer, and a thermal insulating bottom layer (secondary backing). Electrotextile connections have been developed between carpet layers and between the carpet and the
power supply, together with a SMART control system with a temperature sensor embedded in the carpet.

Project Results:
During the first nine months of project, RADCARPET Consortium has invested important efforts in order to coordinate actions and objectives. SME and RTD´s involved in the project have collaborated in a dynamic environment. In consequence, research tasks started according to planned timetable,defined research lines have reported promising results and the background and requirements of the project stakeholders have been integrated into an innovative industrial solution. First work package
has been successfully finished and the main research work packages, 2 to 4, progress satisfactorily.Outcomes from main research work packages are expected to be available for demo work packages implementation during the last project stages.

At the end of the First Reporting Period RADCARPET Consortium has obtained important advances in order to finally achieve RADCARPET Goals:

- Key elements of RADCARPET final design have been clearly defined and first approaches to final design are currently being discussed and optimized.
- Two different advanced simulation models have been generated in order to optimize heat generation and transfer and different elements integration.
- Heating elements and its components have been specifically designed attending to industrial, efficiency and security criteria.
- Achieved enhancements on heating element durability will allow RADCARPET heating systems to meet market durability requirements.
- Efficient design of the overall system and polymeric and textile elements optimization it is expect to provide energy efficiency values over 95%.

During the last fifteen months of the project, RADCARPET Consortium has concentrated efforts in order to coordinate and implement actions for the successful conclusion of the project. When deviations have been found or initially set objectives appeared not to be achievable the Consortium has worked on the definition of new objectives and contingency plans so that the project has met his main objectives. To increase the value of developed solutions work done by the RTD´s has not been limited to initial scope and new solutions like thermally enhanced adhesives of the integration of thermal comfort criteria as device managing principle take part of the final foreground.

Developed technology acts a low temperature heating surface that due to the predominant radiative nature of the heat transfer mechanisms. Up to 55% direct energy savings can be obtained due to the use of RADCARPET technology due to lower losses and advantageous thermal comfort values. - Two different advanced simulation models have been generated in order to optimize heat generation and transfer and different elements integration.

The tuft and primary backing were improved in design and the use of ceramic particles. RADCARPET tufts offer lower thermal resistance than more advanced thin thermal conductive concrete slabs with significantly lower thermal inertia, weight and space needs. Quick response time and SMART control system management offer extra 15 to 30 % savings.
Lower response time allow also to reach thermal comfort conditions in reduced times lower than 5 minutes.

Potential Impact:
RADCARPET as an energy efficient system for space heating of non-residential buildings that can be easily installed in non-residential existing buildings. Non-residential have high ventilation rates and thus radiant floor solution become most effective in terms of energy saving. RADCARPET will be a carpet that can be installed on top of any kind of floor, taking advantage of carpet renovation periods (every 5 years) to make it possible an energy efficient renovation of existing buildings. The whole floor or individual spaces can be covered by RADCARPET as a heating system. RADCARPET will therefore be a non-intrusive, simple and inexpensive solution for building renovation to reduce energy consumption, overcoming the obstacles for existing building refurbishment (expensive, lengthy works, inconvenient). It will be powered by electricity, which is the main form of energy that powers non-residential building due to the demands of their use.
RADCARPET will have a low investment cost, expected in 5,100 €/100m2, which means a 30% to 45% cheaper than hydronic floors and electric sheets, respectively. RADCARPET is expected to produce 60% thermal energy savings, equal to approx. 100,000 kWh/year or 17,000 €/year, in energy-intensive buildings achieving a payback period of 2 years.
Offices, hotels and educational buildings have an average floor surface of 700 m2, so large energy savings (21kWh/m2) will benefit the end user, Europe’s energy reduction, and this consortium as manufacturers of the solution. RADCARPET has a potential total market size of 3 million non-residential buildings in 11 countries: 1.7 million offices (57%), 0.8 million educational buildings (27%), and 0.5 million hotels (16%). While the current building renovation rate for energy efficiency is 60-80 years, carpets are replaced every 5 to 10 years depending on the quality and the use.
RADCARPET will be simply installed when current standard carpets need to be replaced and will thus accelerate the renovation rate by 8 times to exploit a 146€ million market potential. The total market penetration in the primary market (renovation of non-residential buildings) is expected to be of around 5100 non-residential buildings (2900 offices, 1300 educational buildings and 800 hotels), equivalent to 3.5 million m2 of RADCARPET and worth 105€ million. In 2017-2021 this consortium
will concentrate on only in specific regions within each country.
In 2021 we will also reach households (residential buildings), based on the selling/installation experienced accumulated, a larger and settled production capacity. The average 3-person European household has 120m2, but only 80% (»100m2) is susceptible of being carpeted by RADCARPET (not bathrooms or wardrobes). We consider realistic to renovate the current carpet by our energy-efficient heating system in a total of 500 households with a total turnover of 1.5€ million.
RADCARPET will save 60% energy consumption for space heating in target buildings, equal to 21 kWh/m2 and year. Since the total expected penetration in RADCARPET is 710,000 m2/year, it will generate total energy savings of 13€ million in five years. In comparison to the EC values, RADCARPET will save 6,600 toe and thus 14 tons of CO2 emissions.
Since the total expected investment by end users in RADCARPET is 96€ million (TISCA turnover),
this project has the potential to create »1300 new jobs in 5 years. Considering that each new job created to be worth 27,000€/year on average, RADCARPET will generate 37€ million in jobs that benefiting local SMEs that cannot be replaced by cheaper man-power from abroad.
RADCARPET will alleviate respiratory issues because, in comparison to the HVAC forced-air heating systems in non-commercial buildings, the amount of outdoor air (carrying dust, dirt and allergens) is limited to natural air replacement. If we reach each of those 1-in-5 Europeans with respiratory problems (in our target 5100 buildings), RADCARPET can save 0.5€ million in expenses.

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