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Small Wind Turbine for Urban Environments

Final Report Summary - WINDUR (Small Wind Turbine for Urban Environments)

Executive Summary:
As SMEs in the supply chain of small Wind Turbines (WTs), the SME partners of the WINDUR consortium identified an excellent opportunity in the urban submarket. The Small Wind market mainly corresponds to turbines installed in rural and isolated areas. Nevertheless, urban is by far the largest potential market, as 80% of European population lives in cities and the EU directive 2010/31/EU on Energy Performance of Buildings requires that “Member States shall ensure that by 31 December 2020 all new buildings are nearly zero-energy buildings”. This is an exciting commercial opportunity, which yet needs to cope with technical challenges related to the peculiarities of Urban Wind regime. The low wind speed and turbulent flows make the achievement of wind energy cost effectiveness more difficult in urban areas.

WINDUR proposes a small vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) optimized for use in urban environments as a roof-top mounted system. Proposed novel developments include: (1) a variable speed control system developed to maximize VAWT’s energy yield under rapidly changing wind speeds, (2) an aerodynamic design based on a helical rotor, refined for reducing rotor weight and loads on the roof, to lower WINDUR installation complexity and cost and (3) an assessment of wind resource in urban areas, for characterizing those locations with better wind resources. WINDUR has a targeted performance of 0.2kWh/€ at an annual average wind speed of 6.5 m/s guaranteeing a Return on Investment period shorter than 15 years.

WINDUR achieved a cost efficient rotor design with straight extruded light-weight aluminum blades. The vertical axis design ensures that the turbine is immune for changes in the wind speed direction, which is ideal in urban environments. One disadvantage of this turbine concept is that it has no starting torque. However, this was successfully tackled by using an active rectifier with a start-up routine. This start-up system was thoroughly tested in the Small Wind Turbine Field Laboratory in Ostend. If sufficient wind speed is detected, the turbine starts up smoothly without any sudden torque changes. As soon as the rotor speed is sufficient, the turbine automatically changes to MPPT mode and starts generating power. Therefore, the variable speed system envisioned in the project proposal works properly. Moreover, a high-level control system was added to make this system as robust as possible. For example, as soon as an anomaly is detected in one of the measurements, the turbine goes in fallback mode and ensures a safe shut down.

The main financial conclusion of WINDUR is that the turbine can be produced for €10.964 at a yearly volume of 20. With an estimated energy production of at least 2000kWh, the performance equals 0.18kWh/€ which is very close to the initial objective. At higher production volumes, the cost can be reduced and the objective is reached easily.

Project Context and Objectives:
WINDUR proposes a small vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) optimized for use in urban environments as a roof-top mounted system. Proposed novel developments include: (1) a variable speed control system developed to maximize VAWT’s energy yield under rapidly changing wind speeds, (2) an aerodynamic design based on a helical rotor, refined for reducing rotor weight and loads on the roof, to lower WINDUR installation complexity and cost and (3) an assessment of wind resource in urban areas, for characterizing those locations with better wind resources. WINDUR has a targeted performance of 0.2kWh/€ at an annual average wind speed of 6.5 m/s guaranteeing a Return on Investment period shorter than 15 years.

The work plan of the WINDUR project consists of 7 work packages. First, the main technical specifications are defined in WP1 and serve as input for the more in-depth development and design. It is crucial to investigate the nature of the wind resource in an urban environment, which is done in WP2. Further technical development and design is performed in WP3 for the aerodynamics and WP4 for the power electronics and control. WP5 deals with field testing of the prototype. The feasibility of rooftop mounting is investigated in WP6. Finally, dissemination and IPR protection is bundled in WP7. In what follows, the objectives of these work packages are discussed in more detail.

The overall objective of WP1 (Detailed technical specifications) is to detail the technical specifications for the WINDUR turbine. The most relevant specifications have been established during the proposal preparation (vertical axis, helical rotor, variable speed control, grid connected, etc.) and correspond to the major technical objectives of this project. This WP will establish a complete set of specifications, as required to guide developments works, where all the project partners contribute in their field of expertise.
The specific technical objectives of this WP are the following ones:
- To define the technical specifications for the components of the WINDUR turbine in order to ensure easy interfacing and promote the use of international standards.
- To deliver a preliminary integration design.

The overall objective of WP2 (Wind power assessment in urban areas) was the assessment of wind power resources in urban areas, including on site measurement and modelling. In this reporting period the objectives were to continue with onsite wind measurements, data collection and setting up the simulation model.

The overall objective of WP3 (WINDUR aerodynamic components) was the design of the rotor. An iterative optimisation design process was used, using performance simulation tools of CENER. Real data on wind power resource in urban areas (measured in WP2) was used to input the performance model on wind conditions. Optimisation design parameters were established according to the project objectives of reducing rotor weight and facilitating its installation as a rooftop mounted system. Key aspects to urban integration such as noise, vibrations transmission and aesthetic criteria were also considered. Aerodynamic and structural performance has determined the need for design refinements and a final WINDUR rotor was delivered. The optimisation process based on simulation tools was verified by wind tunnel testing of a scaled prototype.

The overall objective of WP4 (Power Electronics) was to develop, prototype and test the control electronics system for the turbine. A new control algorithms for a variable speed control system for a vertical axis wind turbine was developed. A complete power control system has been implemented, for an on-grid turbine, according to the technical specifications.

WP5 (WINDUR prototyping and lab field testing) was devoted to assembling a WINDUR prototype from the subcomponents delivered in WP 3 and 4, undertaking the prototyping of the wind turbine blades and assembly of the rotor, power electronics and installation structure. This WP also included the testing of this prototype at a Small Wind Turbine Lab Field at UGENT.

WP6 (Rooftop Installation) is devoted to the installation of the final prototype as a rooftop mounted system in an urban building. WINDUR suitability for rooftop installation will be tested and initial output power values under real conditions operations will be monitored. This WP will also deliver an analysis of economic aspects of the WINDUR turbine (estimation of set-up costs, running costs, impact on productivity- reduction of down times and reduction of spurious products, etc..).

WP7 corresponds to Other type of activities and gathered all tasks devoted to dissemination, IPR protection and exploitation management. This WP guaranteed the maximum dissemination of scientific results, coordinating the IPR protection strategy for the consortium and designing and developing a future exploitation strategy. The activities in this WP aimed to ensure the highest possible impact for the results achieved in the project, and ensured an effective mechanisms for the future commercial exploitation of WINDUR technologies by the participant SMEs.
The main objectives of this WP were:
- Ensuring broad dissemination of the project main results to the potential clients, as well as other relevant
- European stakeholders, in order to facilitate the highest possible impact of the project results.
- Ensuring all relevant results are adequately protected, providing a monopoly in their exploitation rights to the
- participant SMEs.
- Ensuring effective technology transfer from the RTDs to the participant SMEs that guarantees SMEs acquire
- required technical knowledge to adopt the project results and successfully exploit them

Project Results:
1. WP2: Wind power assessment in urban areas

1.1. Objectives

The objectives of this WP were the following ones:
In order to have better insight into the physics of the urban wind turbines, a graphical user interface (GUI) that employs the OpenFOAM flow solver has been developed for industrial applications by Uppsala University with Spanish engineering company SOLUTE. Urban wind resource assessment for small scale wind applications present several challenges and complexities that are different from large-scale wind power generation. Urban boundary layer relevant in this regime of flows have varying horizontal profiles while the buildings, the low speed wind regimes, separation and the different turbulence characteristics impact the profile. Numerical and experimental results are validated for a test site in Huesca, Spain, employing the results of measurement campaign that is finalized to validate the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) results from OpenFOAM RANS solver. The site in Huesca was especially chosen so that cross validation of measurements was possible with two mast locations. There were other measurement sites to create a database. In addition, the developed software is introduced for the project setup and scientific visualization of the results for right investment decision needs. The overall objective of this work package is the development of tools to assess wind power resources in urban areas, including on site measurement and modelling. On site wind monitoring at locations selected by Solute in WP1 was undertaken by Solute on behalf of Uppsala University. As part of this work, the complexity of the problem motivated us to look at the physics of urban flow problems first by measurements on several sites in Spain based on different climate classification regions defined by the Koppen-Geiger climate classification. The results of this measurement campaign are also presented.

1.2. Tasks: progress and results

The figures and tables that are mentioned can be consulted in Deliverable D2.1. Wind simulation model & Wind assessment results Database.

Task 2.1 On-site wind monitoring in urban rooftops (UU, Solute) M4-M18

Summary of progress towards objectives:

As part of this work, the complexity of the problem motivated us to look at the physics of urban flow problems first by measurements on several sites in Spain based on different climate classification regions defined by the Koppen-Geiger climate classification. The results of this measurement campaign is presented. A separate work employing Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has also been initiated as part of this study via EU WINDUR project. However this section of the report will solely concentrate on the measurement campaign. The database is available via the website http://katalog.uu.se/profile/?id=N13-244.
Based on the challenge of where to place the measurement masts, Solute, a Spanish engineering company that is partner of the project has taken the initiative to survey several sites in Spain for Uppsala based on Wladimir Köppen climate classification map. The most frequently used climate classification map is the one of Wladimir Köppen. Subsequent publications adopted this or a former release of the Köppen -Geiger map. Their processes were constrained by the requirements on the permissions to buildings and commercial constraints.
Taking into consideration the project financial constraints and the permission issues and commercial citie sites in the context of the Spanish market and project financial constraints, eight measurement mast locations were selected. Two of these masts were placed in Huesco in neighbouring buildings to be employed for further CFD validation studies. Of the six climate regimes in Spain, five were addressed while the Bsh climate regime that can be observed in limited areas in Spain was not prioritized. The measurement campaign was at 3.5m from the roof of buildings based on the design considerations of the wind turbine that is being developed.

Significant results:

The wind roses of all test sites show that the wind speed is highly dependent on the wind direction. The urban boundary layers have large impact on the wind profile when it comes to small wind turbine installations at the roof of buildings.
Strong correlated similarities are not found in the monthly wind profile compared to the diurnal data. However, six test sites have the maximum wind speed in February, while Ca´diz and Oporto sites have it in April and October. The case of Rivas-Vaciamadrid, of which the classification is BSk, has the largest difference between maximum and minimum monthly wind speeds (3.3 m/s), while Csa has the smallest difference (1.1 m/s). However, the opposite happens in the diurnal profile. In other words, the hourly averaged wind speed changes most greatly during a day in the Csa area, but it has the least change in the BSk area.
The database is available via the website http://katalog.uu.se/profile/?id=N13-244.

Relevant publications:

1 10.1109/CW.2015.71
A GUI for Urban Wind Flow CFD Analysis of Small Scale Wind Applications
Anders Goude , Bahri Uzunoglu , Gabriele Giovannini , Javier Magdalena , Antonio Fernandez 2015 International Conference on Cyberworlds (CW) 01/10/2015 - 09/10/2015
IEEE 193-199
2 Wind flow resource analysis of urban structures, A validation study
Aya Aihara, Bahri Uzunoğlu, Anders Goude
12th EAWE PhD Seminar on Wind Energy in Europe 25/05/2016 - 27/05/2016
European academy of wind energy
3 Urban wind flow analysis for energy applications
Anders Goude, Bahri Uzunoglu and Aya Aihara
Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics
Expected Elsevier 17/01/2017

Task 2.2 Simulation of wind profile at urban sites (UU) (M4-M18)

Summary of progress towards objectives and results:

The developed software is introduced for the project setup and scientific visualization of the results for right investment decision needs. GUI and prototype were delivered to Solute on time. After the end of this period, the extended project time is used for further streamlining and parameter calibration and validation of the software. This is a process that will continue after the project closes.
Simulation tools, such as OpenFOAM, have the capability to perform the required simulations, but to properly set up a simulation from scratch requires a lot of work and good knowledge about the simulation software. To make it possible for a wider audience to perform these simulations, it is necessary to provide a user interface which has already been configured for the chosen set of simulations. This is the main purpose of the user interface presented in the current work. This section will therefore describe the GUI and how it can assist with these difficulties to make it easy to perform urban simulations.For urban simulations, both the orography and the building geometries have to be taken into account and given in the stereolithography (stl) file format, which is used by OpenFOAM. It was chosen to use the traditional file formats .map and .xyz for the import of orography data. In this way, data available for other software such as industry standard Wind resource and energy yield assessment software (WAsP) .map format can also be used in the current model. These formats contain height contour lines (or possibly only point data for the xyz format). From the points specifying these contour lines, Delaunay triangulation1 was used to create a set of triangles, which describe the surface of the terrain and can be saved in the geometry format used by OpenFOAM. In the simulations presented in the current work, map files with contour intervals of 5 m were used for the site. For simple building shapes, the GUI can directly generate the required geometry files, but to support advanced shapes, it is suitable to allow import of CAD drawings as well. As it is common that CAD software can export drawings in the stl format, format is hence used as a possible input format in the GUI. One key aspect of setting up the urban simulations is to add the buildings to the correct geometric positions. A CAD drawing will normally only contain the shape of the building, but it is up to the GUI to modify this geometry data to place the buildings at their correct positions, and also rotate the buildings according to their real positions. The GUI supports both moving buildings graphically by drag and drop, and by manually giving building coordinates. One further step that is required from the GUI is to calculate the ground level at each building position and place the buildings at the correct height.
Mesh generation in the GUI and solver is managed by OpenFOAM structured and unstructured mesh generators. The basic mesh generated by the structured mesh generator is further refined by the unstructured mesh generator for complex geometries such as buildings. The next step of setting up the simulations is to give other simulation parameters, such as surface roughness and velocity profile. Surface roughness can be included, either as a constant value, or by providing roughness data in either the map format, or as structured xyz files. The velocity is given as a logarithmic profile, where the velocity at a reference height, together with the roughness data, will provide the velocity profile.
The next step of the for the GUI is to take care of all steps in the OpenFOAM execution, to allow the user to run simulations by pushing a single button. The GUI will first call the mesh generation parts of OpenFOAM. When the mesh is generated, the boundary conditions have to be updated with respect to the new mesh. First, the ground level for the logarithmic velocity profile has to be updated for each individual position, to make the logarithmic profile start from the correct position throughout the domain. If varying roughness data is provided, this also has to be updated to give each ground position the correct roughness value. Then the GUI should call OpenFOAM to run the simulations. Finally, the GUI should extract the simulation results at the given points of interest. All these steps are handled automatically without user influence. The GUI will provide support for running both single simulations, and sector sweeps, where the wind direction is changed between the simulations to generate data for wind- rose plots.
In general, the simulation model captures the trends for the different directions. There are differences from measurements results based on sectors due to the uncertainties with both the measurements, and the geometric setup of the simulations in the light of the turbulence regime and computation expense, the objectives have been achieved.
A model for simulating wind fields in urban environments has been developed and validated against measurement data. The model is based on OpenFOAM and comes with a GUI for setting up the geometry and running the simulations, and is designed to work on a normal high performance PC. Validations are performed for one site in Spain, with two met mast installed, and four different wind directions have been evaluated. The simulations show reasonable accuracy for the tested wind directions.

Relevant publications: see previously mentioned



2. WP3: WINDUR aerodynamic components

This WP has a duration of 22 months and is led by CENER. This WP consists of 4 tasks. Below is an overview of the progress and results of each task.

2.1. Objectives

The main objective of this task was to deliver a novel design of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) rotor, optimizing its performance for urban roof-top installation. The design had to be implemented by using VAWT specific aerodynamic computational tools and validated with wind tunnel tests.


2.2. Tasks: progress and results

Task 3.1 Aerodynamic performance prediction tools (CENER, UU) (M7-M14)

Summary of progress towards objectives:

Existing aerodynamic prediction tools have been evaluated, adjusted, validated and prepared for the design activity of the WINDUR rotor.

Significant results:

Improved tools for VAWT aerodynamic design.

Task 3.2 Iterative rotor optimization design process (CENER) (M7-M20)

Summary of progress towards objectives:

A design of the different aerodynamic components of the rotor has been done, performing an optimization of the parameters that maximize the power production at the expected wind conditions of urban areas. The particular considerations of a VAWT for urban roof-top installation have also been taking into account in the design.
The optimization of the aerodynamic behavior has been combined with a structural design of the rotor components. The outcome is a final design of the WINDUR rotor ready for manufacturing.

Significant results:

A final design of the WINDUR rotor has being delivered, with optimized performance on the expected condition at urban roof-top sites.
A new aerodynamic airfoil specifically designed for this wind turbine is provided in the rotor blades design .
Rotor manufacturing has also been optimized to reduce the weight and the cost.

Task 3.3 Wind tunnel testing (CENER) (M22-M25)

Summary of progress towards objectives:

Two different wind tunnel tests at two different facilities have been performed. One is a so-called 2D test where the new design airfoil has been tested to obtain its real performance. The other one is a 3D test of a scaled down model of the WINDUR rotor to measure its power curve at stablished conditions.

Significant results:

The two different wind tunnel tests have been performed showing good agreement of results with computations performed.


3. WP4: WINDUR Power Electronics

This WP has a duration of 20 months and is led by UGent. This WP consists of 5 tasks. Below is an overview of the progress and results of each task.

3.1. Objectives

The technical objectives of this WP for this reporting period were the following ones:
- To develop algorithms for a variable speed control system based on Maximum power point tracking, MPPT).
- To implement a power control system for variable speed operation of a on-grid vertical axis wind turbine
- To validate the power control system in the laboratory.
- To design and prepare for integration in WP5 a complete power electronics system according to the technical specifications defined in T1.3 including commercial components and novel developments from WINDUR in the power control solutions.

3.2. Tasks: progress and results

Task 4.1 Development variable speed control algorithms (UGent) (M7-M15)

A literature study was performed and several variable speed control algorithms have been compared. One particular algorithm (Kazmi, 2011) was found to be promising for gusty wind conditions. It was implemented in a simulation model to facilitate the tuning of the parameters.
The aerodynamic specifications show that the WINDUR turbine is not self-starting. For this reason, an active rectifier is selected to motor the rotor during start-up. A sensor is used to detect whether the wind speed is sufficient. Then, the start-up control is activated. The control system switches to regular control as soon as the turbine speed is high enough.

Significant results:

- Study shows that a lookup table MPPT will offer the best results for the WINDUR turbine
- A solution has been found for the start-up of the wind turbine

Task 4.2 Development grid synchronization solutions (UGent) (M7-M15)

The grid synchronization algorithm has been developed. The algorithm makes sure that the inverter operates as robust as possible and keeps the dc voltage at the desired level at all times. This is achieved by adding a high-level control layer on top of the low-level control to monitor all relevant parameters. The high-level control then takes action if anomalies are detected. Also, a net filter is added to ensure that the current injected into the grid conforms with any grid guideline which could be encountered in practice. Finally, the start-up of the grid connection is made in such a way that it is smooth and has a minimal impact on the grid.

Significant results:

- The preliminary grid synchronization algorithm is described in D4.1.
- The algorithm is implemented in a Matlab/Simulink simulation program.
- The final grid synchronization algorithm is described in D4.2.
- A netfilter is designed and described in D4.3.

Task 4.3 Power control electronics prototyping and testing (UGent)

Printed Circuit Boards (PCB) for the converter were designed by Ghent university (presented in D4.3). The implementation and testing of the algorithms is also done by Ghent University. The algorithms are constructed in such a way that safety, efficiency and robustness are prioritized. This is done by constructing different modes through which can be switched when well-defined conditions occur, i.e. idle mode, start-up, normal operation, soft shutdown and error.
A FMECA is performed by Ghent university and the Power Innovation Lab. This FMECA is presented in D4.3 and is used to counteract all possible dangerous scenarios.

Significant results:

- A newly designed well-functioning printed circuit board for both the grid-side and the generator-side inverter.
- Implementation of the final algorithms.
- Design and implementation of safety and efficiency features in the algorithms.
- Design and implementation of the start-up and shut-down procedures.
- A FMECA is constructed and used for safety features.

Task 4.4 WINDUR power system (UGENT, MASTER, CENER, PIL) (M18-M21)

The WINDUR power system was built by Ghent university and several commercial components have been selected by the Power Innovation Lab. The electrical is suitable for outdoor installation. The complete power electronic system is placed inside the housing. The cooling plates are attached to the outside of the housing, so no forced cooling is needed. The electrical protection circuit is designed by the Power Innovation Lab and is discussed in D4.3. Also, temperature sensors are included to detect overheating of the system.
A netfilter is designed to ensure compliance with the grid code. The design is given in D4.3. Also several interfaces are designed by Ghent university. These interface boards serve as relay drivers to control the dump load, the grid connection and the mechanical break.
To measure the wind speed, an anemometer is installed on the wind turbine. This anemometer is mainly used to detect the cut-in wind speed, but the signal is also beneficial for the performance of the MPPT algorithm.

Significant results:

- The power electronics cabinet is designed and built.
- The electrical protection is designed in implemented.
- Several interface boards are designed and tested.
- An anemometer is selected and implemented.
- PT100 sensors are selected and implemented.
- A mechanical break is selected.
- A generator is selected.


4. WP5: Prototyping and Lab Field Testing

This WP has a duration of 12 months and is led by UGent. This WP consists of 8 tasks. Below is an overview of the progress and results of each task.

4.1. Objectives

The technical objectives of this WP for this reporting period were the following ones:
- First prototype of a functional WINDUR turbine
- Prototype of a software tool for simulation of wind resource in urban areas
- Field Lab testing of the WINDUR turbine, delivering reports on the testing results
- Final WINDUR validated prototype, ready for the demonstration activity of rooftop installation in a building to be undertaken in WP6.

4.2. Tasks: progress and results

Task 5.1 Integration design (MASTER, CENER, UGENT) (M20-M21)

Summary of progress towards objectives:

The design of the different components to build the complete wind turbine has been performed.
A structural system provides the connection of the rotor to the generator. This system comprises the bearings, the mechanical safety brake and a flexible attachment to perform the mechanical connection of the generator. It also allows the installation of the connectors needed for the cabling installation.
A modular tower blade has been designed and manufactured to allow the installation of the rotor for the field tests, but also for other locations.

Significant results:

The integration design of the different components to build the complete wind turbine was performed.

Task 5.2 Prototyping of WINDUR turbine (MASTER, CENER, UGent, PIL) (M22-M24)

Summary of progress towards objectives:

The WINDUR prototype was designed to allow a simple assembly. For all connections, connection boxes are installed in the nacelle. The cables are taped together and dropped through the tower with a weight. On the ground, they are connected to the converter prototype.

Significant results:

All the wind turbine components were sent to Ostend, and mechanical and electronic components were put together as expected in the design. This is documented in D5.1.

Task 5.3 Definition of the Turbine Testing (UGent) (M22-M24)

Summary of progress towards objectives:

The following testing steps were defined to be performed in the SWT Field Lab in Ostend:
- Step 1: Mechanical rotation test.
- Step 2: Start-up motoring test.
- Step 3: Generating with MPPT test.
- Step 4: Grid-injection test.
These test definitions are described in D5.2.

Significant results:

The required tests were defined (mechanical rotation test, start-up monitoring test, generating with MPPT test, grid-injection test) (see D5.2). These test will be performed on the Windur prototype that is mounted in the SWT Field Lab of UGent in Ostend.

Task 5.4 WINDUR Testing at SWT Field Lab (UGent) (M24-M26)

Summary of progress towards objectives:

The mechanical rotation test and start-up motoring test were successful. The turbine prototype can be started, even when there is no wind. During the motoring test, the field orientation control worked flawlessly. The control system switches to normal MPPT control automatically if the rotor speed is sufficiently high.
Next, the MPPT system was tested. To fine-tune the parameters, we learned that sufficient wind speed is needed. This fine-tuning is important to achieve a satisfying dynamic performance, which is a difficult task. Before commercialization of the turbine is possible, the tuning of the parameters should be improved further.
Regarding the grid-injection, the converter has shown to work flawlessly, both during start-up and normal operation. The voltage is regulated while the current injected into the grid complies with the grid standards.

More info on the progress of the testing: At 19-06-2016, the tests in Ostend were still going on due to a lack of sufficient wind in the foreseen testing period. They continued until 28-09-2016, when the turbine broke down. The tests had been completed at that day for 98%, the results were that the control electronics components were working fine. The converter was working fine, including the startup, shutdown and error procedures. During the final tests, it became clear that the power produced by the turbine rotor was in agreement with what could be expected theoretically. In other words, the turbine blades were successful in capturing wind power. During the last test we only still had to finetune into detail the parameters of the MPTT. So the MPPT was working fine, only the very last finetuning of the parameters still had to be done (=that last 2%). Therefore, we did not reach a situation with sufficient steady-state conditions to do a power measurement on the grid side. D5.2 has been updated accordingly. The work that has been done after the end of the project and before the breakdown has not been claimed by UGent or any other partner.

After the breakdown of the turbine in September, no redesigns have been created yet and no final prototype was created. But if you take a look at the text of the T5.4 refinements at this stage would correspond to the control electronics components, related to the variable speed system and grid connection systems, not to mechanical components. At the end of the project, at 19-06-2016, there also were no mechanical issues. So D5.2 is ok, D5.3 is created but it has not much content since the design of the prototype control electronics components did not need to be changed since D5.1.


Significant results:

The motoring test was successful. If the wind speed is high enough, the system starts up and switches to normal MPPT mode.
The MPPT system was able to reach the MPP and generate power. The fine-tuning of the parameters could still be improved in the future.
The grid injection system works flawlessly.

The tests proved that the wind turbine can be started. The tests also showed that the MPPT control is working. The results are also described in D5.2.

Task 5.5 Blade Structural Testing (CENER) (M22-M24)

Summary of progress towards objectives:

Structural tests have been performed to validate the structural computations performed. The most critical elements of the rotor were manufactured in scaled down models and put through flexure and traction destructive tests.

Significant results:

Successful results from the tests showed that the structural computations were conservative in the design of the tested elements.
Structural tests showed up that the computations were conservative. The results can be consulted in D5.2.

Task 5.6 Prototyping of software tool for wind power simulation in urban areas (UU, SOLUTE) (M19-M22)

Summary of progress towards objectives:

In order to have better insight into the physics of the urban wind turbines, a graphical user interface (GUI) that employs the OpenFOAM flow solver has been developed for industrial applications by Uppsala University with Spanish engineering company SOLUTE via EU framework as part of the WINDUR framework 7 project. GUI and protype was delivered to Solute on time. After the end of this period, the extended project time is used for further streamlining and parameter calibration and validation of the software. Simulation tools, such as OpenFOAM, have the capability to perform the required simulations, but to properly set up a simulation in from scratch requires a lot of work and good knowledge about the simulation software. To make it possible for a wider audience to use perform these simulations, it is necessary to provide a user interface which have already been configured for the chosen set of simulations. This is the main purpose of the user interface presented in the current work. One initial step of setting up urban simulations is to create the input geometry, which is the step where a GUI is most useful, as manual generation of all input geometry files is not feasible for the normal user. For urban simulations, both the orography and the building geometries have to be taken into account and given in the stereolithography (stl) file format, which is used by OpenFOAM. These stl files contain a set of triangles that describe the surfaces of the geometry. As this is not the typical file format used to describe orography, the GUI has to be able to generate these files from more common orography data formats. It was chosen to use the traditional file formats .map and .xyz for the import of orography data. In this way, data available for other software such as industry standard Wind resource and energy yield assessment software (WAsP) .map format can also be used in the current model. These formats do instead contain height contour lines (or possibly only point data for the xyz format). From the points specifying these contour lines, Delaunay triangulation1 was used to create a set of triangles, which describe the surface of the terrain and can be saved in the geometry format used by OpenFOAM. In the simulations presented in the current work, map files with contour intervals of 5 m were used for the site. For simple building shapes, the GUI can directly generate the required geometry files, but to support advanced shapes, it is suitable to allow import of CAD drawings as well. As it is common that CAD software can export drawings in the stl format, and this format is hence used as a possible input format in the GUI. One key aspect of setting up the urban simulations is to add the buildings to the correct geometric positions. The GUI supports both moving buildings graphically by drag and drop, and by manually giving building coordinates. Mesh generation in the GUI and solver is managed by OpenFOAM structured and unstructured mesh generators. The GUI will provide a suggested set of default refinement parameters, to simplify for the user, but for the advanced user, the mesh refinement parameters can be manually edited. Similar to the building input, the GUI will also allow the user to select given positions, where the velocity should be calculated. This information will also be used to automatically refine the mesh around these points of interest. Surface roughness can be included, either as a constant value, or by providing roughness data in either the map format, or as structured xyz files. The GUI generates the mesh , the boundary conditions, the logarithmic velocity profile, model run and data extraction. All these steps are handled automatically without user influence. The GUI provides support for running both single simulations, and sector sweeps, where the wind direction is changed between the simulations to generate data for wind- rose plots.

Significant results:

All results are presented for a site in Huesca, Spain. In general, the simulation model captures the trends for the different directions. A model for simulating wind fields in urban environments has been developed and validated against measurement data. The model is based on OpenFOAM and comes with a GUI for setting up the geometry and running the simulations, and is designed to work on a normal high performance PC. Validations are performed for one site in Spain, with two met mast installed, and four different wind directions have been evaluated. The simulations show reasonable accuracy for the tested wind directions.


5. WP6: Rooftop installation

This WP has a duration of 2 months and is led by MASTER. This WP consists of 3 tasks. Below is an overview of the progress and results of each task.

5.1. Objectives

The technical objectives of this WP for this reporting period were the following ones:
- Demonstration of the novel WINDUR turbine, by installing a functional prototype to operate as a rooftopmounted system on an urban building.

This work package corresponds to demonstration activities and is devoted to the installation of the final WINDUR prototype at its final pre-commercial destination. WINDUR suitability for installation at end-users will be tested, although given the final timeline for the project, it is not possible to compile initial output power values under real conditions operations. All partners will contribute to this WP, under the leadership of MASTER, with the aim to deliver a real scale WINDUR prototype operating on an urban environment by the end of this project. Finally this WP will also deliver an analysis of economic aspects related to set-up costs and challenges of the novel WINDUR turbine. This analysis will be included in the final exploitation plan and aims to assist SMEs in their assessments prior to the technology adoption.

Specific technical objectives are demonstration of the novel WINDUR turbine, by installing a functional prototype to operate as a mounted system on an urban environment.

5.2. Tasks: progress and results

Task 6.1 WINDUR installation on a urban building rooftop and DEMO testing (MASTER, SOLUTE, CENER, UGENT, PIL) M26-M27: partly done
Due to bad weather conditions (the absence of sufficient wind) in the field lab of Ostend, the field lab testing of the WINDUR turbine there has been delayed (dd. 19-06-2016). These tests in Ostend have been continued after the project had finished when there was enough wind. Costs for this have not been claimed. Since the turbine broke down at the very end of the tests (28-09-2016), the transport to Spain and rooftop testing under real operation conditions were not performed any more. Only the preparations of the installation were done: finding the right location, obtaining some permits and defining of the final testing. This was performed before the end of the project. This is documented in D6.1 and D6.2.

T6.2 – Economical analysis of WINDUR product and production processes ( CENER, Vertech, all) M26-M27: partly done
Only a preliminary cost analysis of the actual prototype as it has been designed in the project has been done, before 19-06-2016, with the data that was available at that moment. This is described in D6.2.


Potential Impact:
This part of the project was realized in WP7: Dissemination, IPR & Exploitation Management. This WP ran over the complete duration of the project and was led by the Dissemination, Exploitation and IP Protection Management Committee (DEC) headed by MASTER. The DEC consists of all the SME partners.

More detailed information can be found in Deliverable 7.4: Final plan for the use and dissemination of the knowledge.


The main objectives for WP7 were:
- Creating the basics for dissemination activities during the whole duration of the project: branding, templates, monitoring and sharing tools and plans.
- Raising awareness about the existence of the project, in order to pave the way for the broad dissemination of the project main result to the potential clients, as well as other relevant European stakeholders, in order to facilitate the highest possible impact of the project results. Ensuring effective technology transfer from RTDs to the participant SMEs that guarantees SMEs to acquire required technical knowledge to adopt the project results and successfully exploit them commercially. This will be continued during the second year of the project.
- Ensuring all relevant results are adequately protected, providing a monopoly in their exploitation rights to the participant SMEs.
- Providing a thorough analysis on commercial exploitation routes for the project results.


There were 3 tasks executed:

Task 1: IPR management (DEC) M1-M24

Summary of progress towards objectives:

During the project efforts have been focused into:
1. Identifying all assets coming out from the project, meaning every result potentially exploitable by any partner any way as a stand-alone "product".
2. Developing the so called MULO matrix for the project, which identifies:
2a. Ownership claims by the partners over each asset;
2b. Exploitation intentions over the asset by each partner (M = merchandising, U = using, L = licensing, O = other);
2c. Access rights required to other assets in order to fully exploit the owned ones by each partner, in case there are any;
2d. Assets to be protected via patents, trademarks or other legal means.
3. Assessing with experts the patentability of the most relevant assets, and mainly of WINDUR Prototype.
4. Analyzing additional opportunities for IPR protection, apart from patents.
5. Defining a final strategy for IPR protection.
6. Launching this strategy and related plans.
7. Compiling relevant data in terms of Freedom to Operate analysis for the preparation of the Plan for the Exploitation of results.

Patentability of WINDUR turbine and Freedom to Operate have proven to be relevant challenges for the project, also with great impact in the future exploitation of results, and which have been faced with the support of expert companies (RTDI for the intensive analysis of patents, trademarks and their relation to the state of the art, including an extensive study of competing products, matured and emerging. Also of IP professional agents for the application of a European utility model). This challenge was created on one hand by the enormous amount of patents in the World related with small wind energy in their technical and/or legal contents. On the other hand, because a lot of knowhow in this area is traditionally handled via trade secret, which makes the analysis of the state of the art complex in terms of assessing the patentability of results. Finally, because WINDUR has been designed by using standard and certified methods and tools, which facilitates the future industrialization of the prototype but also makes it harder to differentiate it from the legal perspective inherent to worldwide patent systems.
In the end, a utility model was considered to be the best option for protecting the WINDUR turbine, after deep analysis of current patents at global level and related Freedom to Operate analysis carried out by our external collaborators in this task. It has been applied for already, at European level.
The rest of assets (mainly the power electronics and the software tool for the simulation of urban wind resource) will be protected as proprietary knowhow.
Finally, the SME participants have agreed to a distribution of access rights that ensures that each SME participant is provided with all the rights required for the intended commercial exploitation of their owned project result.

•IP on Result#1 owned by MASTER
These SMEs will share the ownership of the IPR on Result#1, the WINDUR turbine, corresponding to a small vertical axis wind turbine.

•IP on Result#2 owned by the SME participants PIL and UGENT
PIL and UGent will share ownership of the IPR on Result#2. This result is a novel variable speed control system for vertical axis wind turbines. UGENT is the RTDP responsible for this development.

•IP on Result#3 owned by SOLUTE
SOLUTE will have the proprietary know-how on the software simulation tool for urban wind profile, developed by RTDP UU.
Access rights have been proposed in order to secure that no SME participant will be able to act as an obstacle for the commercial exploitation of the project results. If a partner is not able to exploit their owned results during a pre-established period of time, these exploitation rights can be assigned to other companies (with priority for other participant SMEs in WINDUR).

•Use of IPR on Result#1 (owned by MASTER)
The exploitation preliminary plan is that MASTER retains exclusive rights to exploit this project foreground. This plan also establishes that the reimbursement mechanism for PIL will be as preferential supplier of the control electronics (PIL) and the wireless monitoring system (PIL) for WINDUR turbines, under fair and market-driven economic conditions.

•Use of Result#2 (co-owned by PIL and UGENT)
PIL will exploit this asset themselves, as they have enough resources. They could also consider to license exploitation rights to other European enterprises, if required to meet demand. They will be preferential suppliers for WINDUR turbines.

•Use of Result#3 (owned by SOLUTE)
Solute will exclusively own this know-how and be able to commercially exploit it. They will commercialize a software tool based on this development to assist small wind turbine distributors to assess which buildings in a certain urban area have better wind resource. Solute will be a preferential supplier in WINDUR commercialization. Furthermore, WINDUR partners have agreed that this software will be exploited in the European small wind market without any restrictions, as it is a tool or facilitating small wind adoption and we would not restrict this positive impact on European society. Thus, Solute will not be reimbursed any royalties on result 1 and 2 generated revenues, and Solute will not pay royalties on revenues generated by exploitation of result 3 to the rest of SME participants.

Significant results:
• Preliminary list of assets from the project
• MULO matrix designed for WINDUR and on-going through the partners
• Preliminary concrete agreements amongst the SMEs on the sharing of IPR and related commercial agreements needed after project end.


Task 2: Dissemination management

Summary of progress towards objectives:

This task has been focused in fulfilling the objectives:
- Creating the basics for dissemination activities during the whole duration of the project. For this purpose, whole branding for the project has been designed (logo, templates for presentations and documents, website design), the overall dissemination plan for the project has been outlined and tools for the monitoring of activities and results and sharing information and contacts have been implemented (i.e. dissemination joint calendar, described in D7.3).
- Raising awareness about the existence of the project. All dissemination activities carried out during this period are fully described in D7.3 and the contents generated and published compiled in D7.2.
The purpose was to pave the way for the broad dissemination of the project main result to the potential clients, as well as other relevant European stakeholders, in order to facilitate the highest possible impact of the project results. This will be reinforced during the second year of the project, more focused in the results being obtained.
For this purpose, main activities during the project have been via the Wind Technology Platform (i.e. at EWEA) and the partners (in Internet as well as other media, such as the radio). However, dissemination activities have been pending the implementation of the IPR protection strategy and trade secret directives in relation to the definition of the final plan for the exploitation of results.
It is important to outstand that dissemination activities have been controlled over the project lifetime in order not to eliminate the possibility to apply for the European utility model described under the previous task.

Significant results:

• Project branding and templates.
• Project website designed and operative, with contents being continuously updated.
• D7.2 D7.3. and D7.4
• Dissemination monitoring and coordination tools.


Task 3: Industrialization and exploitation planning

Summary of progress towards objectives:

During the first year of the project particular attention was given to the assurance that final results would be really ready to be industrialized, considered critical for a successful exploitation by SMEs in the future.
For this purpose, preliminary assessment has been required by Master to three engineering firms specialized in wind turbines and renewable energy, who have counseled about how this could be assured during project lifetime. Nevertheless, the implementation of their propositions and guidelines could not be the objective of the second year of the project, for which further assistance will be required from these specialists in future stages beyond project lifetime.
During the second year of the project, the focus has been given to the preparation of the final Plan for the Exploitation of results. Several critical strategic decisions have been taken, such us defining in detail the different customer segments for WINDUR, a full analysis of return of investment in comparison with solar energy, the pricing policy and IPR protection strategy after a very deep analysis of the state of the art, both at market and patent levels.

Significant results:

• Identification of critical needs towards the industriability of the main results from the project.
• Definition of the final IPR protection strategy.
• Preparation of the final Plan for the exploitation of results.


The main deviation from Annex I texts (rather a specification of preliminary patenting plans) is the decision to protect WINDUR with a utility model. After a deep analysis of the state of the art at market and patents level, carried out by specialists, this decision was taken with the support of these specialists and IPR offices. Small wind is an area with great patent activity for many years, based in very general scientific laws and technologies. This has made it necessary to protect individually the most innovative aspects from WINDUR, for which a utility model is the best option. It is also wise in terms of trade secret assurance and best value for money.
All details of this patent analysis are compiled in a confidential version of our Plan for the Exploitation of results, which can be sent to the EC services if requested.

Other possible innovations and invention submissions that PIL is aiming at are:
1. Passive cooling construction and method to minimize the thermal resistance.
2. Measures to reduce the on-board EMI and therefore eliminate the need for external filtering.
3. Integrated power electronic protection devices to enable an integral cost-down.
4. Back-to-back inverter topology with optimal bus-voltage control for maximum efficiency.

Concerning the net side, UGent will not patent anything since regulatory systems from the literature have been implemented.
Concerning the generator, UGent will also not patent anything. Being a university they cannot execute commercial activities. The only thing that can be done is grant licenses to companies to valorize IP. But in this project, the IP is property of the SMEs so UGent has no intention at all to do something commercial with it.

List of Websites:
website: http://www.project-windur.eu/

Project Coordinator:

Prof. Dr. Ir. Lieven Vandevelde
Ghent University
+32 59 24 27 42

Dissemination Manager:

Joaquin López
Mastergas
+34 91 666 86 97