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BEst in class veHICLE: Safe urban mobility in a sustainable transport value-chain (BEHICLE)

Final Report Summary - BEHICLE (BEst in class veHICLE: Safe urban mobility in a sustainable transport value-chain (BEHICLE))

Executive Summary:
The project delivers a new integrated urban EV approach combining power requirements and balanced energetic performance for urban environments with top-notch Euro NCAP safety rating. It is based on a sound, novel manufacturing and assembly concept guaranteeing ease of production. Moreover, the path towards a new mobility concept solution has been paved devising a by means of an integral mobility model that takes into account societal constraints and challenges, focusing on a local assembly and market deployment of urban light EVs for European municipalities. In the end, a complete business model is proposed considering modularity in assembly.

A benchmarking stage to assess the validity of the novel multimaterial concept proposed and decided on the configuration of the prototype vehicle or rolling chassis. The benchmarking comprised a frontal and side EuroNCAP impact test. In parallel, a thorough assessment and study of the material mix of the car was performed. The elaboration of a proposal of new materials to be implemented in the BEHICLE car was performed. Material mix and weight budgets for the final BEHICLE were proposed and the final version defined aided by computer design and simulation tolos.

The e-drive specifications and engineering phases were based on feasibility studies that were performed in order to verify the longitudinal performance targets of the Behicle powertrain considering requirements such as weight, efficiency, torque/power and available space and related safety aspects. A preliminary powertrain specification was achieved and manufactured, able to be adopted by the vehicle in terms of longitudinal dynamic performances, weight and restricted volume.

The arrangement and implementation of passive restraint systems and the design, manufacturing and performance assurance of energy absorbing elements located in the front end of the BEHICLE cars constituted another key task. The energy absorbing elements were manufactured of two composite materials, a composite material based on a polypropylene matrix which contains a set of continuous glass fibre mats and raw polypropylene material with a 30% of content of long glass fibre. For restraint system development, static deployment tests, linear impactor tests, airbag model correlation, crash simulation and sled tests validated the proposed system: a compact driver airbag, a four point seat belt, a one side airbag and one inflatable curtain airbag.

The manufacturing and assembly of final BEHICLE prototypes led to powertrain performance and structural tests. Previous analysis of past Euro NCAP results for quadricycles and small cars paved the ground to perform the Euro NCAP assessment of BEHICLE. A detailed analysis of the crash test results provided data to determine relatively straightforward design changes that could be made to improve the crash performance.

Finally, new production and distribution business models for electrical vehicles (EV) based on cooperation between all the agents participating in the supply chain have been defined and validated, aiming to eliminate the need for centralised production and assembly lines. It has been also demonstrated the significant costs reduction derived from a cooperative business model. To conclude, new ways for implementation and use of EV in urban areas have been explored, based on the concept of mobility-on-demand, aiming to increase the acceptation of this type of vehicles by the users.

Project Context and Objectives:
Urban environments are nowadays the natural place for EVs to be but it is fundamental for the success and viability of EVs to respond to evolving customer demands, where it is mandatory to develop light, affordable, safe, ergonomic and energy efficient EVs for the global customer. Therefore efficiency and an adequate level of performance are demanded to EVs in order to co-exist safely with existing vehicles.

The main objective of BEHICLE is to demonstrate and validate a new integrated urban EV approach which combines power requirements and balanced energetic performance for urban environments and fulfils 100% safety assessment according to Euro NCAP crash tests with highly compatible design.

The BEHICLE project is delivering a safe, lightweight, performance enhanced and updated version of an existing urban electric vehicle. The main objective in BEHICLE was to demonstrate and validate a new integrated urban EV approach which combined power requirements and balanced energetic performance for urban environments and fulfill 100% passenger safety requirements according to Euro NCAP protocol. With the intention of filling the gap between M1 vehicles and quadricycles, the BEHICLE has been designed with emphasis on:

1. High level of safety comparable to the best super-minis (M1) currently in the market
2. Reduced consumption by optimization of the electric drive-train and radical weight reduction compared to current M1 vehicles
3. Optimized for use in an urban environment offering swift acceleration, braking, and cornering as well as easy parking.

The main project objectives are described below:

A. Establishment of a detailed working framework aimed to the development of a safe urban concept regarding:

1. Best in class protection for the driver, for the passenger and for the pedestrians,
2. Vehicle performance
3. Cost effectiveness, in order to ensure the accomplishment of the project objectives by providing common criteria for all the working teams.

B. To define a detailed design for BEHICLE, including the optimum combination of lightweight technologies and safety systems, so that the obtained vehicle will be able to cope with the requirements stated in the call topics and specifically reaching the Best in class protection levels for the driver, for the passenger and for the pedestrians in EuroNCAP crash tests. Precisely:

1. To define the maximal allowable weight of the desired vehicle according to the requested performance in terms of energy consumption and autonomous range for urban environments.
2. To update the current QBEAK car structure according to available lightweight manufacturing technologies, such as extrusion of high performance aluminium profiles and production of thermoplastics with metallic reinforcements for automotive structural applications.
3. To assess the performance of thermoplastic materials for their use as energy absorption modules, including pedestrian protection issues related to EuroNCAP assessment.
4. To integrate off-the-self airbag technology pursuing the Best in class protection levels for the driver and for the passenger according to EuroNCAP assessment.
5. To integrate off-the-self electric powertrain and batteries able to deliver the required vehicle performance in terms of energy consumption, power and range.
6. To develop an integral and optimized design of the BEHICLE demonstrator.
7. To ensure that the final design of the demonstrator accomplishes with the existing and forthcoming performance, weight and safety conditions for urban environments.
8. To identify bottlenecks in the design phase and reduce risks for the construction phase

C. To manufacture the BEHICLE demonstrator (4 units) including safety systems and manufacturing technologies previously described. More in detail:

1. To create the drawings, technical reports, assembly diagrams, and additional engineering information, which are necessary to fabricate the vehicle demonstrators.
2. To develop a planning describing the following activities and times within the working teams:
• Manufacture and assembly of multi-material vehicle structure and chassis.
• Integration of powertrain and batteries together with their control systems.
• Integration of safety systems.
• Vehicle dressing-up (interior and outer body elements).

3.To guarantee that the demonstrators are ready to be monitored in time and to align all the working teams involved in the construction activities

D. To validate the BEHICLE demonstrators in terms of energy consumption and Best in class protection according toEuroNCAP tests, assuming the tests are carried out before the major revisions that are scheduled for 2015.

1. Validation of vehicle prototype nr.1 testing in urban environment to fulfil the 80 Wh/km energy consumption, 150 km pure electric range and compelling acceleration (0 to 100 km/h in 10 s).
2. Validation of vehicle prototype nr.1 in accordance with the latest pedestrian testing protocol.
3. Validation of vehicle prototype nr.1 in accordance with the latest whiplash testing protocol.
4. Validation of vehicle prototype nr.2 in accordance with the latest frontal impact test protocol.
5. Validation of vehicle prototype nr.3 in accordance with the latest side impact test protocol.
6. Validation of vehicle prototype nr.4 in accordance with the latest pole side impact test protocol.

E. To investigate the BEHICLE compatibility by numerical simulation with following virtual tests
F. To execute during the complete project a detailed monitoring and metering program of manufacturing costs for the

The BEHICLE project objectives, from a measurable point of view, were defined at the beginning of the project as:

- EuroNCAP crash-test rating of 4 or 5 stars
- Development of a lightweight architecture with a maximum vehicle weight of 550 kg (with batteries and one occupant)
- Acceleration target: from 0 to 100 Km/h in 10 seconds (max.)
- Average energy consumption of 7 kWh/100 km
- 80 Wh/km energy consumption under real urban driving conditions
- At least 150 km of pure electric range under real urban driving conditions

Project Results:
The main results and foregrounds can be grouped in 6 main categories:

1. Implementation of novel solutions for the body-in-white and bodywork of the concept, proposing a material mix concept adequate to the targets defined, with its associated joining and assembly methodology, using iterative design and simulation loops (in WP1)

2. Development, construction and implementation of a performing e- drive capable of ensuring the desired torque and consumption demands (in WP2)

3. Development of a fine- tuned restraint systems (belt and airbags) and passive safety elements (energy absorption modules) made of composite materials attached to the front end of the vehicle (in WP3); Identification of the most suitable Restraint Systems for BEHICLE taking into account the specific BEHICLE geometry and crash behaviour; Integration of those Restraint Systems in BEHICLE. Adaption and optimization of the Restraint Systems to fulfil final performance targets in Euro NCAP crash tests.

4.Manufacturing and assembly of 4 complete functional BEHICLE prototypes in a staggered manner (WP4)

5. Assurance of optimal safety performance for the driver and passengers, testing it under EuroNCAP protocols in force in 2013, and performing required on-road and consumption tests (WLTC, NEDC) to assess performance of the e-drive (in WP5)

6. Elaboration of a sustainable e-mobility concept with BEHICLE as a pivotal element addressing the economic feasibility of the proposed concept, using as a benchmark the hypothetical deployment in a parameterized urban environment. Proposing a modular assembly and manufacturing concept that can be subsequently used in the deployment of urban light EV-s in municipalities.

The main results achieved, specifically for each work package, have been the following:

In the work package devoted to novel design and benchmarking activities (WP1), the main results and foregrounds have been the following:

1. Manufacturing of 2 rolling chassis and subsequent testing and rating according to EuroNCAP protocols: Front and side simplified impact tests.
2. Elaboration of a thorough assessment of crash test results highlighting structure deficiencies and improvement areas.
3. Elaboration of a FEM model and tuning of the model according to executed crash tests, allowing for virtual environment where the design improvements can be tested without incurring in additional development costs.
4. Full redesign of the vehicle body-in-white with improved crashworthiness. Complete CAD models.
5. Definition of bodywork of final BEHICLE prototype, considering lightweight solutions
6. Definition of design parameters ensuring passenger integrity
7. Definition of a car structure assembly methodology, based on flat composite panel assembly and joint.
8. Definition of Design-Freeze for the BEHICLE car (CAD)

Concerning the development and implementation of the powertrain (WP2), the main achievements have been the following:

1. Definition of mechanical efficiency improvements solutions. Different solutions were analysed in order to improve the efficiency of the powertrain and achieve the efficiency targets
2. Selection of new reduction gear solution, improving reliability, efficiency and performance
3. Design of a 2-speed drive design at a conceptual level
4. The electric motor and inverter solution were manufactured and implemented for further testing
5. Preliminary efficiency tests have been performed in test bench
6. Complete performance tests of the devised powertrain (NEDC cycle and WLTP cycle)
7. Final detailed design of the BEHICLE integrated powertrain solution.
8. Final bill of material of the BEHICLE integrated powertrain solution with the required commercial solutions to define a good compromise between cost and performance targets required from the powertrain.
9. Validation of the BEHICLE powertrain in the test bench, allowing the assessment of the estimated longitudinal performance values defined in the DOW, and the correct powertrain working in terms of temperature variations and reliability

With respect to the development and integration of restraint systems and modular safety elements (WP3), the main achievements have been the following ones:

1. Definition of the modular concept for energy absorption devices in the frontal area: Crash-Box like structure, based on overmoulded composite technology.
2. FEM modelling and validation of the proposed approach, in line with the overall car FEM model tuning carried out in WP1.
3. Definition and manufacturing of the tooling to manufacture the modular crash-boxes
4. Manufacturing of the energy absorption modules for characterization of material and fine tuning of the complete of FEM model.
5. Second manufacturing run to integrate energy absorption modules in the final BEHICLE prototypes
6. Selection of passenger restraint systems, defining passenger cabin protection strategy. Selection of seat-belt type.
7. Selection and virtual integration of curtain, side, thorax and driver airbags in passenger compartment
8. Adjustment of driver and passenger compartment dimensions to integrate the mentioned solutions: Attachment of driver seat, space restriction checking, child restraint system integration, etc.
9. Sled test rig manufacturing to ensure proper airbag deployment sequence
10. Selection of the Restraint Systems to get an optimal occupant protection in BEHICLE environment, described in Section 3.4.
11. Integration of Passive Restraint Systems (airbags and seat belts) in BEHICLE.
12. Optimization of the performance of the Passive Restraint Systems (airbags shape, airbags pressure, seat belt pre-tensioning,...) in order to fulfil final BEHICLE targets in Euro NCAP crash tests, as described in Section 5.

With respect to prototype building and manufacturing, WP4, these are the main achievements:

1. Complete integration of developed components and system in the Behicle (complete electromechanical integration)
2. Definition of the complete assembly procedure.
3. Commissioning of 4 complete, functional Behicle cars for testing and validation

Concerning the final testing and validation tasks in WP5 the main achievements have been the following:

1. Execution of range test of BEHICLE prototype using WLTP cycles which included coast down test.
2. Validation of BEHICLE prototype power train model using dynamometer and coast down test result and comparative study of BEHICLE prototype performance with initial design targets.
3. In terms of compatibility, assurance of good compartment integrity in fixed barrier tests (ODB, FWDB and PDB). Pulse severity of these tests showed challenging results for the restraint system.
4. In terms of compatibility, ascertainment of the fact that BEHICLE showed fatal results in tests with conventional vehicles and mPDB. Severe intrusion levels and high pulse severity occurred in these tests.
5. Arrangement and performance of a full suite of Euro NCAP tests following the protocols from 2013 because this was when the project started and BEHICLE design targets were set.
6. Performance analysis of the test results to calculate Euro NCAP rating of BEHICLE
7. Further analysis of test results to propose design changes to improve the Euro NCAP rating of BEHICLE

The WP dealing with the business model and supply chain method, WP6, brings the following results:

1. Elaboration of a methodology for Mobility-on-Demand (MoD) deployment of electric vehicles in urban areas, applicable to this case.
2. Deployment of the business model for BEHICLE, defining the layout of the assembly area of an assembly plant, defining operative guidelines (Takt time, etc) and logistics plan

The main project results that have been identified as potential exploitable products / services are the following:

1. The BEHICLE electric car itself

2. Some of the main BEHICLE components:
• Powertrain
• Energy Absorption Modules
• Restraint systems (airbags and seatbelts)

3. Other exploitable services:
• The methodology for deployment of EVs in cities under MoD conditions
• Calculation and simulation services for EVs with multimaterial structures.
• Consultancy services to improve safety in EVs

The main exploitable result of the project is the urban mobility solution materialised as an industrial design and proof of concept of a car, entitled BEHICLE. BEHICLE is an innovative solution for urban mobility in the cities of the 21st century. It is not only a car; it is an entire concept of mobility. The car is only one part of the concept. More concrete, the vision of the BEHICLE concept is the following:

• Proposes an alternative solution for social sustainability addressing the problems of urban mobility.
• Plans a multi-business scenario based on its centre-piece urban electric car on which series of functions and associated services will be established.
• Is based on principles giving solutions to citizens and stakeholders to generate sustainable urban mobility systems.

BEHICLE is a new means of transportation, mindful of the city, ecological, sustainable and safe.

The main features of the item comprehend:

- A lightweight, multimaterial body-in-white comprised of a mix of engineering materials, such as, reinforced flat composite panels, high strength steel, structural aluminium joined and integrated under a bodywork manufactured in EPP composite and polycarbonate glazing.

- A performing e-drivetrain comprised of 2 in-wheel rear electric motors aimed at supplying the target top speed whilst guaranteeing minimal consumption.

- A multimaterial front-end module, attached to the firewall, in the shape of composite crash boxes attached to a central aluminium beam.

- An integral, passenger protection system of passive nature, consisting of a series of airbags integrated and tuned to ensure occupant safety. The system includes a driver airbag located in the steering wheel, curtain airbags, thorax airbags and a retractile four point top-belt.

The BEHICLE drivetrain has been redesigned trying whilst maintaining the existing restrictions into consideration. The drivetrain consists of following main components:

• A compact high-speed PMAC motor capable of delivering of maximum torque of 30 Nm, maximum rotation speed 17-18000 rpm. The potential maximum power delivery from the motor is 44 kW.

• Primary transmission parts.

• An aluminium cover, with upright housing modified to ensure clearance. The housing provides high structural integrity, improved cooling and better sealing (since the chain will run in oil bath).

• Braking system, integrated in the drivetrain is the functional brake (disk brake) and the parking brake (drum). Furthermore the drivetrain offers the possibility of regenerative braking applying negative torque on the motor. The drivetrain is prepared for the implantation of ABS (this will not be used on the Behicle)

• Mounting points for suspension and wheel

Innovative restraint systems were developed and integrated in BEHICLE. These restraint systems were adapted to the specific BEHICLE architecture and crash behavior.

o Concerning Frontal Impact, two restraint systems have been adapted and integrated in BEHICLE:

• Compact Driver Airbag: Innovative lightweight compact driver airbag module located in the steering wheel. Due to the reduced available space in the conical steering column and also due to the exigent weight target of BEHICLE, this driver airbag with reduced packaging and weight has been considered the most suitable option for the project.

• Driver four-points seat belt (Top belt): Due to the particular characteristic of BEHICLE (without B-Pillars and with the driver in a central position) a new and innovative four points seat belt (Top Belt), with two retractors provided with load limiters and pyrotechnical pretensioners has been integrated in the car. Retractors are located at the roof in the rear part of the car, while tongues are also located at the roof in front of the driver. Two buckles are attached to both sides of the seat with the purpose of getting fastened to the tongues.

o Concerning Side impact, the following restraint systems have been selected to be integrated in BEHICLE and adapted to the particular BEHICLE environment:

• Side airbag integrated in door: Due to the very thin BEHICLE seat backrest, it was not possible to integrate the side airbag in the front seat like in conventional cars; therefore it was integrated in the door and fixed to the aluminum door beam. The specific BEHICLE seat layout with the driver seat in the center offers a new scenario for innovative side airbags because of the increased space between the side structure and the occupant. Airbag shape has been designed to cover all the different seat positions corresponding to different occupant sizes.

• First Row Curtain airbag placed at the roof. Main contribution of this curtain airbag is to avoid the front occupant’s head contact against an external obstacle in pole test collisions, and to reduce the occupant’s head excursion in barrier test collisions. Shape of the bag has been designed to cover the different occupant sizes.

In addition, rear seats were provided with conventional three point seat belts to protect rear passengers. All these restraint systems could be adapted and integrated in other light EV according its specific needs and characteristics.

The frontal energy absorption modules for the Behicle prototypes are systems mainly based on a set of thermoplastic composite materials, and have been manufactured by Novaform®, an extrusion-compression process property of Grupo Antolin. Simulations, design and manufacturing tests led to two composite materials that comprised the main core the energy absorbing modules:

• Tepex®: A composite material based on a Polypropylene matrix which contains a set of continuous glass fibre mats.
• Raw Polypropylene material with a 30% of content of long glass fiber.

The whole front end structure is composed by two energy absorption modules, a horizontal beam and two additional lateral wings, attached to the reinforced area of the chassis; this is the final configuration for the energy absorption system. At the same time, it provides support for the frontal bumper and some components of the bodywork

Within the BEHICLE project a methodology has been developed aiming to demonstrate in practice the feasibility of the implementation of Mobility on Demand (MOD) service for public transport in cities, based on a new concept in electric vehicles and on a new concept of urban mobility. The Mobility on Demand Concept will model the radical change expected in urban mobility and the collaborative feasibility studies seek to work closely with city and regional governments in providing in-depth analysis and applied research aimed at creating effective and long-term implementation strategies for integrated sustainable mobility. Thus, main features of this methodology are:

Propose an alternative solution for social sustainability addressing the problems of urban mobility.
Plan a multi-business scenario based on its center-piece urban electric car on which series of functions and associated services will be established.
Be based on principles giving solutions to citizens and stakeholders to generate sustainable urban mobility systems.

The methodology allows:

1.To perform feasibility studies for the implementation of MOD in cities. The feasibility study will investigate:

✓The integration of individual electric mobility solutions with public transport systems,
✓Business and service models for users, technology infrastructure providers and city public transportation system,
✓Spatial planning and traffic management strategies for mobility-on-demand applications,
✓Opportunities for integrating e-mobility applications with sustainable housing and city design,
✓Technological requirements and opportunities for linking e-mobility applications, local renewable energy systems and local sustainable grids for integrating life-style applications with personal e-mobility.

2.To define relevant issues for the deployment of a fleet of E.V such as:

✓Customization of the model to the specific needs and objectives of the city
✓Estimation of end-user demand
✓Required physical parking and recharging infrastructure
✓Service integration in the existing city public mobility system
✓Viable business model for financing and operation

3.To design a method for the deployment of a small fleet of electric vehicles to test the implementation of MoD in the different cities.

This includes the parameterization of issues such as:

✓Number of cars shipped to the city depending on different parameters such as size of the urban area, density of the public transportation system, etc.
✓Selection of a target users sample to test the different services connected with MOD.
✓Design of the different tests to be performed with the EV and the selected users.
✓Necessary agreements with the city and transport authorities in order to be able to deploy a fleet of electrical vehicles for a period of time.
✓Insurance standardization in order to be able to try the fleet with the target users in a safe mode.
✓To evaluate the real impact of the implementation in a city of a MOD system, in terms of reduction of use of private cars, reduction of traffic problems and pollution, increasing of use of public transport, etc.

4.Last but not least, to remove the cultural barriers for the implementation of a MOD system, developing the appropriate dissemination materials for spreading the advantages towards the citizenship and for promoting a new, more sustainable mobility culture, shifting transport to more efficient transport modes.

The structural simulation of vehicles designed as a multimaterial body is highly challenging. Due to their complex material behaviour and failure modes the material testing and the validation of the FE-Model is more important than in the development of a conventional vehicle with structures from conventional materials e.g. steel and aluminium. These testing should be load specified to validate the right corridor for the expected load cases. Additionally the cohesion in a multimaterial body is also complex. To realise a short development time the solving time for the FE-model should be considered from the beginning of the development of the simulation model as well. This should be as short as possible, but also accurate as possible With respect to the investigated load cases failure modes and intrusion levels are the main important focus of the structural development with multimaterial bodies.

The knowledge gained from the BEHICLE project will be used by partners to help demonstrate and advertise the knowledge and experience in the area of crash safety of electric and small vehicles. In particular this will help TRL sell consultancy services in this area. In performing this work, TRL has gained experience in the design of small electric cars and associated issues such as:

- How to deal with issues associated with small vehicles, such as the higher deceleration pulses experienced in crashes because of BEHICLE’s relatively light weight compared to other cars.

- The pitfalls (difficulties) in designing and assessing the crashworthiness of a car that lies in the gap between L (quadricycle) and M (passenger car) category vehicles.

Potential Impact:
Estimates of the volume of global electric car market are still difficult to imagine the medium and long term. In the short term, some specialized UN agencies, estimated at 2015 3M electric cars sold around the world. Of these, approximately 660,000 (22%) would be the type BEV (battery electric vehicle), i.e. 100% electric, as BEHICLE. The rest would be hybrid type (PHEV and HEV).

The electric car market is expected to focus on four major areas: Europe, USA, Japan, and China. According to the same sources, the long-term estimated sales of 100% electric cars will grow to exceed 1.300.000 units in 2020 with the following distribution by area. In 2020 annual sales of 100% electric cars (BEV) could reach 1,300,000 units Worldwide. Europe has emerged as the main market (57%) of 100% electric cars. Follow him at a distance, China, USA, and Japan. Most stakeholders assume a realistic market share for new, electrically chargeable vehicles in the range of 3 to 10% by 2020 to 2025. The market penetration will depend on the extent to which the tasks and requirements are addressed and fulfilled as well as on how fast the technology develops and on the way customers’ perceive/accept electric mobility.

In this context, the share of market BEHICLE goal is to reach around 0,5% of the estimated market BEVs 2022, with annual sales estimated between 3.000 to 5.000 units on that date. BEHICLE will be commercialised all over the world. Its model of commercialisation is supported by franchise dealers, who, after receiving the vehicle modules, will assemble the vehicle and sell it directly in their assigned areas. The new mobility concept and peculiarities of a fully electric car like BEHICLE, points at a specific type of customer including cities, rental company fleets and individuals.


BEHICLE will be commercialised all over the world. Its model of commercialisation is supported by franchise dealers, who, after receiving the vehicle modules, will assemble the vehicle and sell it directly in their assigned areas.

The new mobility concept and peculiarities of a 100% electric car, as is BEHICLE, points to a specific type of customer also including cities, rental and companies’ fleets, and individuals, as reflected in the next Table:

Table: Market segmentation for BEHICLE

Customer Segment
CITIES Municipal corporations that promote alternative urban transport networks based on the use of electric cars, through innovative systems (car-sharing, mobility on demand, ...).
FLEET private companies Fleet private companies and corporations. A specific niche is the fleet-related leisure tourism industry (hotels, tourist resorts, eco-tourism, shuttle services connecting, theme parks, natural parks ...) as well as distribution companies and other urban services.
CAR RENTAL fleets Traditional car rental companies that incorporate electric vehicles into its offerings rent.
Private Customers End Users buy an electric car as a second vehicle for private use adapted to their lifestyle.
For the application of the new business model based on the concept of franchised companies, the company of the car manufacturer (IeM – Insero e-Mobility) will be split into two new companies, IeM-Cars and IeM-Services, both of them belonging 100% to IeM, but having different and complementary functions. The functions of these companies will be:


- Production of the BEHICLE modules and spare parts.
- Assembly and sales of BEHICLE in its local market (Denmark and Nordic Countries)
- Sales of the BEHICLE modules to IeM- services, according the logistic policy defined in deliverable D6.1
- Sales of the spare parts to all the franchised companies.
- Maintenance and repairing of the cars in the local market.
- Plus all the supporting activities: engineering, marketing, commercial activity in the local market, etc...

• IeM – Services:

- Commercial activity focusing the promotion of franchised companies in the foreign markets.
- Training, technical and commercial support to the franchised companies.
- Sales of the BEHICLE constituting modules to the franchised companies.
- Surveillance of the quality of the cars assembled by the franchised companies.


Tecnalia will exploit the capabilities developed in the prescription (design and implementation) of e-drivetrains and testing procedure of powertrains of urban electric vehicles in specific test benches, in order to obtain performance for each vehicle and scenario. Tecnalia has the technical capabilities, knowledge and experience to exploit this product, totally aligned with the automotive department’s goals and vision.

The specific activities associated to the testing procedure of powertrains are the following ones:

- Detailed definition of different components to be integrated into the final powertrain prototype, based on existing commercial solutions. Definition of bill of materials.
- Definition of the optimal control strategy for the defined powertrain from a functional perspective.
- Consideration of design requirements due to safety aspects and chassis restrictions.
- Evaluation of the performance of the electric drive in realistic driving cycles replicating the conditions during operation for a realistic driving pattern in terms of energy consumption.

Potential customers for the skill developed within the project would be conventional OEMs and SMEs devoted to manufacturing and commercialization of light electric vehicles for urban mobility.


In case of a mass production of the Behicle car, Grupo Antolin will exploit the energy absorption modules developed in this project. As a tier one supplier of the automotive industry, Grupo Antolin owns the necessary knowledge, experience and infrastructure for the exploitation of this product..

Due to logistical or strategical reasons, Grupo Antolin may be not interested in the production of the parts; in that case, an agreement could be reached with a third party. Anyway, the Novaform technology is protected by an international patent, so this agreement is subjected to the following conditions:

- An agreement with a third party could be reached only by Grupo Antolin, and only if Grupo Antolin is not interested in the mass production of the parts.
- A commercial agreement with a third party will not be reached without an additional agreement regarding the licensing of the Novaform technology.
- Additionally, a Non-Disclosure Agreement could be requested by Grupo Antolin as a mandatory condition to reach a commercial agreement.

All car manufacturers could be potential customers for this kind of parts, because they provide a great solution in terms of mechanical properties and weight saving, which is one of the most important goals for the next few years for almost every carmakers. Grupo Antolin is able to develop this kind of products for future vehicles, applying all its knowledge regarding, product design, materials, CAD, product testing and validation, mass production, etc.

At this moment it is not possible to speak about future economic issues, because this kind of parts belongs to a relatively new group of technologies and products that are on the first positions of the innovation. New processes, products, and materials are continuously appearing, overcoming the properties and characteristics of the previous ones with new outstanding features. These new materials, processes, etc. are closely related with the production costs, and in consequence, they are continuously changing the economic environment. Today these kinds of products are an open door for suppliers of the automotive industry as Grupo Antolin. The price of composite materials is going down, and the advances reached in its processing have reduced the production costs. Due to this, its implementation in conventional cars has started. Although an increase of the demand is expected, it is very difficult to estimate the volume of this market in the future.


TRW will exploit the passive restraint systems developed in this project. TRW has the technical capabilities, knowledge and experience to exploit those products which are aligned with the TRW business development.

In the particular case of a potential BEHICLE serial production, TRW would exploit the seat belts, frontal and side airbags. For such exploitation a commercial agreement with IEM would need to be established in order to achieve profitable results for both parts.

Other potential customers for the restraint systems developed within the BEHICLE project are OEM or vehicles manufacturers aiming to commercialize light electric vehicles for urban mobility, mainly in Europe. The restraint systems developed within BEHICLE project could be integrated and adapted to the specific geometry and crash behaviour of those vehicles in order to have an optimized protection in crash.

Also, the recent interest of Euro NCAP to improve the safety in light quadricycle would be an extra motivation for the carmakers to provide their light electrical cars with performance-enhanced restraint systems like airbags and seatbelts in the next years. TRW would be interested in developing those restraint systems using the knowledge and experience achieved in BEHICLE.

As the scenario for a future introduction of this kind of vehicles in medium or large European cities is not clear yet, as a first approach it could be considered that TRW will provide the passive restraint systems to three more light electric vehicles besides BEHICLE in the next 5 years: 1 vehicle in the third year of exploitation, another one in the fourth year of exploitation and a third vehicle model in the fifth year.


BIB will exploit the MoD methodology developed in this project and described in section 2.3.1 of this deliverable. This exploitation is fully aligned with BIB experience and skills, as Consultancy Company.

Typical customers are EU medium and large size cities, aiming to deploy a fleet of electric vehicles under Mobility-on-Demand (MoD) conditions and to reduce the costs for the implementation of these vehicles through innovative business models, as dynamic pricing policy and geo-located advertisements. The market will be covered directly by the BIB’s staff, both in the commercialization and in the implementation phase.


Technische Universität Berlin will force the research in lightweight vehicles to reach the same level in occupant safety in all vehicle categories. Important facts are the simulation of multimaterial vehicle structures and their failure mechanism on which TUB gained knowledge and experiences within the BEHICLE project. The developed simulation models will be used for further research on lightweight vehicles to investigate safety of occupants and vulnerable road users. Typical customers for such work are Vehicle manufacturers, public transport authorities and other research institutes. TUB generally works in projects with external partners. The scope of each project will be defined individually, as well as the financial framework.


TRL will use the knowledge gained from the BEHICLE project to help demonstrate and advertise their knowledge and experience in the area of crash safety of electric and small vehicles. This could take the form of information on their website, for example a project profile, and presentations / papers at meetings / conferences. This will help TRL sell consultancy services in this area.

Typical customers for such services are: vehicle manufacturers, national governments, and public transport authorities. TRL also works in ‘framework / horizon projects’ for the EC with other partners. Some of the services may be used in these projects.

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