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Executive Summary:
Taking advantage of previous results achieved by ULTRAGASING (FP7-SME-2011-1), DOSHORMAT aimed to optimize and develop two ready-to-market ultrasonic degassing machines for aluminium foundries that represent efficiency solutions for degassing molten aluminium.

The degassing technology is one of the main components of quality assurance in casting industry. The quality of any as-cast material depends to a great extent on the amount of defects. One of the main defects in near-net shape casting processes is porosity.

Currently used methods of degassing have drawbacks and limitations: involve using mixtures of expensive inert gas, health and environment hazards, strict safety rules, larger investment and maintenance costs, and/or low efficiency.

The cavitation melt treatment presents a feasible alternative to current degassing techniques. However, before ULTRAGASSING project, there were not known applications of ultrasound to degas metallic melts on industrial scale and in regular casting processing.

ULTRAGASSING has demonstrated the feasibility of using ultrasonic treatment to degas considerable volumes of melt in batch operations (up to 60 kg). This allowed the development of two conceptual prototypes for degassing aluminium alloys. Even though, there are still relevant points that must be improved in order to successfully introduce the machine in the market and exploit new market niches.

in DOSHORMAT it was improved and optimized the previous prototypes from ULTRAGASSING, adapting them to all the market needs, by developing equipments specifically designed for HPDC and Gravity Casting and another for degassing much larger volumes, suitable for LPDC and, in general, for any casting activity (total melt flow treatment - TMFT).

DOSHORMAT improves the melt quality, reducing the gas content and removing the oxides, highly enhancing the quality and mechanical performance of the components produced (e.g. transport applications), while meeting the present and future environment regulations.

Project Context and Objectives:
Light alloys play the main role in vehicles weight reduction and in the last years the amount of aluminium parts in new vehicles has been steadily increasing. Moreover, weight is even a more critical factor in newly developed electric and hybrid vehicles, as it highly affects their autonomy.
Furthermore, the global green house savings from the use of aluminium in vehicles is expected to double by 2025. However, the use of aluminium alloys is limited by the quality and insufficient properties of the cast parts that suffer from gas porosity.

The presence of hydrogen in the molten metal is the mainly reason of gas porosity in high performance components, which is currently dealt with by melt degassing techniques that involve purging of gas mixtures (often containing chlorine and fluoride) through the melt. This technology is expensive, has limited efficiency and poses health hazard.

Previous research demonstrated that treating the liquid metal with ultrasonic oscillations highly reduces the concentration of hydrogen, improving the quality or the cast parts and increasing the efficiency of some existing degassing techniques when combined with them. The known demonstration of the efficiency of ultrasound-aided degassing has been done on laboratory and pilot scale, and not in the mass production of cast components.

OBJECTIVE: The DOSHORMAT Project intends to improve a method to apply the ultrasound degassing treatment in light-alloys foundry (most of foundries are SMEs), providing the foundry with the environmentally friendly and safe means to improve the quality of cast parts.

Project Results:

This work e aimed at reaching three objectives:

• To provide functional and practical Machines to the DOSHORMAT project consortium in order to refine the previous prototypes
• To develop a ready-to-market machine taking based on the results obtained in the DOSHORMAT project with the prototypes and the customers necessities.
• To adapt the project prototypes to commercialization taking into account aspects non-relevant for R+D projects: costs and manufacturing feasibility, security regulation, aesthetic, ergonomics.

A) General re-design and set-up of the pre-commercial machine:

This involved all the activity related with the general re-design of the machines in the different stages of the project. The work conducted during the last period was mostly focus in a second version of the Machines oriented towards their validation under a full industrial environment.

NEW MACHINE 1 for total melt flow treatment (TMFT) based on robot:
The new solution (with an arm robot) is based in the preliminary results of the validation process. This new machine is ready for total melt flow treatment (TMFT), full and medium volume of aluminium, for gravity (GC), low pressure (LPDC) and high pressure die casting (HPDC).In Figure 1.1 is shown the industrial machine 1 install in facilities of VMG.

Figure 1.1 Machine 1 based on a robot for “HPDC, LPDC & GC machines”

The most important characteristics of this machine in a commercial point of view re:
• Heating system adaptable.
• Crucible size adaptable.
• Safety protection.
• Robot & US Equipment.
• Refrigeration closed circuit.

This machine is ready for treatment, full and medium volume of aluminium in a ladle transport or a furnace. In Figure 1.2 shown the machine 2.

The most important characteristics of this machine are:
• Structure and safety protections.
• US equipment integrate in the machine.
• Protect the cooling system.
• Refrigeration closed circuit.

Figure 1.2 Machine 2 at CERTA’s facilities

B) Optimization of the ultrasonic equipment

New sonotrodes have been designed and fabricated. The results obtained from the tests conducted with the sonotrode with multiple cavitation surfaces, show which type of sonotrodes are better suited for the degassing purpose.

Design of different geometries: Different geometries were designed and simulated with a materials in order to determine the feasibility of the design and the good transmission of the ultrasounds to the surrounding medium.

In order to perform the modal analysis at different temperatures, it is required to introduce in the model the mechanical properties variation with the temperature. The properties have been obtained from the database of the finite element software ANSYS.
Taking into account the simulation results and the manufacturing feasibility it was decided to use a new geometry, calling it multi-step sonotrode.

Figure 1.3 CAD 3D of the 1.5 wave-length stepped sonotrode (left) and image of the corresponding simulation (right).

From the analysis of the result it can be seen that the multi-step sonotrode has a higher degassing effect in comparison with the conventional one.

However, the titanium sonotrode has a high dissolution rate, as can be stated with the increment of this element in the material chemical composition and the fast erosion observed in the sonotrode after just a couple of hours of test. This problem can be avoided with the change of sonotrode material to Niobium. The test performed with the niobium sonotrode show a good performance of this material. The resistance to erosion is better than the one obtained with the titanium sonotrode.

Furthermore, a Silicon Nitride sonotrode has been designed. Silicon nitride has a good behaviour at high temperatures, is almost inert to molten aluminium and has been used in similar applications with satisfactory results. Therefore, a sonotrode made from this material it is expected to last longer.

One of the main problems with this ceramic material is that it is very difficult to process.
As first approach a simple geometry has been taken, in order to validate the fixation system and the performance of the material.

Different finite elements simulations have been performed to obtain the final geometry of the sonotrode with this material.

Figure 1.4 Images of the simulations performed on the silicon nitride sonotrode.

C) Optimization of the vessels and processing schedule

The optimization of vessels was already made during the first year of the project. After some different tests the Machine 1 for “High degassing quality of reduce volumes of metal” was dismissed and all the efforts focused on the development of two machines for “total melt flow treatment- TMFT”, an evolution of previous machine 2 and a new machine based in a robotic arm. Therefore as the final machines apply the ultrasonic treatment in transport ladles or holding furnaces, not further vessel optimization has been required.

The work done in this task in this second period has been related with the research of a new possible treatment system in a melt flow in continuous, which already started in the first period.

Ultrasonic degassing of melt flow: Several experiments have done to evaluate the efficiency of continuous ultrasonic melt degassing.
Four types of experiments were performed:
a. in air with the aim to measure the amplitude and wavelength of flexural vibrations in a plate sonotrode
b. in water with the aim to measure the acoustic parameters and visualize the cavitation
c. in a closed compartment with a liquid A356-type aluminium alloy for degassing and acoustic measurements
d. in an open launder with the flowing melt of the same alloy for degassing.

Experiments in water were performed in a transparent launder similar in geometry to the launder used for liquid aluminium or in a glass vessel with the dimensions close to those of the degassing chamber. Acoustic measurements in water and in the liquid aluminium alloy were taken by a calibrated high-temperature cavitometer, and included the frequency spectrum and acoustic pressure.

The experiments with the liquid aluminium alloy had the main aim of evaluating the degassing efficiency that was taken as the decrease of hydrogen concentration related to the starting hydrogen concentration. Cut ingots from a commercial A356 alloy (7% Si, 0.3% Mg) were melted in a tilting furnace in a clay-graphite crucible. The melt was maintained in the furnace at 740-750 °C or 800 °C. The samples were taken in the furnace before pouring and during the experiment at the end of the launder for the processing in the flow or at the end of degassing from the degassing chamber in the batch operation.

Experiments were also performed in batch operation when the similar amount of melt was processed in the compartment similar in size to the degassing chamber.

Figure. 1.5 (a) A scheme of ultrasonic degassing experiment: (1) ultrasonic transducer; (2) concentrator with extension; (3) plate sonotrode; (4) degassing chamber; (5) launder; (6) baffles; and (7) points of acoustic measurements and (b) actual setup for ultrasonic degassing in the melt flow.

Ultrasonic degassing of aluminium melt: The ultrasonic degassing was first tried in a batch operation where a compartment similar in size to the degassing chamber was used. In this case the comparison was made between the cylindrical sonotrode submerged from the top of the melt (conventional scheme of degassing) and the plate sonotrode located in the lower third of the melt volume. The treated melt weight was 5,7 kg, melt temperature 750 ºC (if not mentioned otherwise), sonication time 2 min and resting time 4 min.

These results confirmed the initial idea that the larger surface area of the plate sonotrode that emits cavitation bubbles in several locations and directs them upwards in the melt, increases the efficiency of ultrasonic degassing. In the performed experiments the efficiency of degassing with the plate sonotrode was about 25% greater than with the cylindrical sonotrode (about 50% improvement), which is quite acceptable by industrial standards.

The feasibility of using the suggested scheme for continuous ultrasonic melt degassing in the melt flow is clearly demonstrated with the achieved degassing efficiency of 50% (75% for batch operation).


The main conclusions that can be inferred from the work conducted are:
• Two different Machines have been designed and have evolved during the project execution according to the results obtained in the trials at the foundries.
• Different sonotrode geometries have been designed and tested highly increasing the initial degassing efficiency of the ultrasonic equipment.
• An alternative degassing treatment performed in a melt flow has been addressed obtaining very interesting results.
• The control of the ultrasonic equipment has been integrated in the main control panel on the 2 final versions of DOSHORMAT degassing machines.


This work was aimed at:
• Test of the different Machines (Machine 1for HPDC & GC, Machine 2 for TMFT) processes in an industrial laboratory and under standard production conditions.
• Evaluate different aspects of machines: Machine performance in industrial conditions & Part replication in industrial conditions
• To find optimal working conditions and to define the target costumer that better fits the machine.

D) Test of Machines in an industrial laboratory

MACHINE 1 (HPDC&GC): The tests conducted, revealed that first version of Machine 1 presented numerous problems related to the dossing system that did not allow a stable metal dossing. For this reason, this version of Machine 1 was discarded for the final validation on the foundries under standard production conditions, and instead of it, it was developed a new Machine based on a robotic arm and the machine 2.
Nevertheless, and in spite of the difficulties encountered on the operation of Machine 1, some parts were produced during the trials with an ultrasonic treatment.

The X-ray computed tomography and the metallographic inspection revealed that the porosity in the parts produced after the ultrasonic treatment was lower than in the components produced without metal treatment.

Regarding the mechanical properties, the hardness values were quite similar in both group of components, without and with US treatment, and mechanical properties obtained were in the expected range for HPDC secondary alloy. Average results for the the 0.2%-yield strength are similar for the specimens without treatment (105 ± 8 MPa) and US degassed (111 ± 15 MPa) samples taken from castings. However the tensile strength is higher in the components degassed with ultrasounds (196 ± 37 MPa) that in the components cast without degassing treatment (164 ± 50 MPa).

MACHINE 2 (TMFT): The main part of the improvements of machine 2 compared to the previous project was done by Hormesa mostly related with the functionality and safety aspects observed in ULTRAGASSING project for machine 2. Initially, in the DOSHORMAT project it was used the same sonotrode as in the previous ULTRAGASSING project. By changing different parameters like treatment time, movement and idle time it was possible to optimize the degassing process and to get an overview about the effects of different parameters on the melt quality.

In further examinations, the shape of the sonotrode was changed and a robotic construction was implemented to increase the efficiency and mobility.

The test conducted in industrial laboratories for machine 2 shows:
- The skimmed dross from the melt surface of the ultrasonic treatment had less dross formation and lower metallic content in comparison with the impeller degassing method.
- The mechanical properties between ultrasonic and impeller can be interpreted as nearly equal. The grain size of the ultrasonic samples in comparison with the impeller samples is significantly smaller and recognizable in the metallographic examinations. The thermal analysis examinations do not show significant differences between both degassing methods. The pore distribution of the samples was determined in the computed tomography examinations and visualised in a 3D model. The results show a slightly higher total porosity in the components with ultrasonic treatment, but there mostly were small pores which don’t have a negative impact at the mechanical properties.
- The hydrogen content of the melt increases immediately after the ultrasonic treatment. After a longer idle time for more than 10 min the hydrogen content of the melt decreases and after 15 min a degassing effect is clearly recognizable.

As a result of the analysis it was decided, to use in further examinations under standard production conditions, a stepped sonotrode made from niobium and a new machine based in a robotic arm to subject and move the sonotrode in order to increase its efficiency and mobility.

E) Test of the Machines under standard production conditions

After the decision of discarding Machine 1, taken for the whole consortium by unanimity, it was decided to validate the Machine 2 (TMFT) in HPDC and Gravity Casting at CERTA Kft and the new Machine based on the robotic arm in Low Pressure Casting in VMG. Therefore, the validation of DOSHORMAT technology under industrial conditions for HPDC and GC were done finally with the Machine 2.

Two different set of trials were conducted in CERTA. In the first set of trials was assembled the equipment, adapted to their operation in CERTA’s facilities and it was done some tests that helped to define the best methodology for a second set of trials.

In order to have a clearer view of the outcome of the different degassing treatments a set of trials was prepared and executed. In these trials, in addition of controlling the quality of the final castings, it was also controlled the quality of the molten metal, by measuring the Density Index of the aluminium alloy before the treatment and after different times, once the treatment was conducted.

It can be observed that the US treatment is much more effective than the standard lance degassing. It reduces the original density index of about 11 to about 6, while the lance goes from 11 to 10, in this AlSi9Cu3(Fe) alloy. This value indicates US degassing treatment removes more H2 than the standard degassing treatment with lance.

Nevertheless, in spite of the difference observed on the metal Density Index, the measurements conducted on the castings with X-ray tomography and microstructural analysis revealed similar porosity levels in the castings obtained with one or other degassing treatment.

The results obtained for Gravity Casting were quite similar. The number of pores present in the components before and after the US degassing treatment was in the same level, especially in the case of the biggest pores.


The main conclusions that can be inferred from the work conducted are:
• Machine 1 (LPDC & GC) was discarded after the trials in industrial laboratory due to the difficulties encountered to obtain a stable dossing. Nevertheless, it was possible to produce some parts, with lower porosity than the parts produced without any degassing treatment.
• Machine 2 was validated for HPDC and GC, revealing a more effective metal treatment, in terms of Density Index, than standard lance degassing for AlSi9Cu3 alloy.
• The porosity level observed in the parts is quite similar in spite of the degassing treatment.
• The defects and porosity inherent to the casting process (especially in HPDC) covers up the positive effect of the degassing treatment.
• The results obtained in the tests of the robotic arm under full industrial conditions suggest, in accordance with previous results obtained in the research laboratories, that the ultrasonic treatment is more efficient than the standard gas bubbling to degas casting aluminium alloys.
• The X-ray tomography of LPDC components doesn’t show any difference between the components produced by impeller or US degassing treatment.
• In the second set of trials the component analysed cast with ultrasonic treated metal revealed better quality in terms of porosity and mechanical properties than the standard produced components.


This work expected to reach two objectives:
• Design and adapt a competitive machine that fulfils clients’ requirements
• Finding new business opportunities for the technology. It will allow us to reach new markets to introduce DOSHORMAT technology.

Feasibility studies were performed, aiming to increase functionality and performance of the machines, according to target market (mainly sector with high mechanical requirements). It was analysed and studied, together with the feedback we get from the attended fairs, the best settings for the future commercial machines adapted to the market needs.


This work was focus on:
• To reach and propose better solutions for the target applications
• To perform feasibility studies to propose new machine configurations for different structures of production
• To do scale up studies of DOSHORMAT technology

F) Study for additional or improved technical solutions for the machines

After the analysis of the different points of the prototype for re-design, several modifications were performed. All improvements were implemented with the aim of improving the functionality of the machine.
Additional modifications of the machines were conducted taking into account the inputs given by potential customers in the trade fairs attended and visits to foundries.

The main improvements introduced in Machine 1 were:
- Create a standard wire interface between injection machines and Machine 1 (HPDC & GC)
- Create a HMI (Human Machine Interface) with a touch screens, to indicate all parameters of the machine.
- Assembly of wheels for to manipulation/movement of the machine.
- Interchangeable dosing tube.
- Filling area more usefully.
- Difficulty integrating machines into existing processes

The main improvements introduced in Machine 2 were:
- Structure and movement system
- US equipment
- Safety system
- Water hoses and electrical cables
- Refrigeration system of the sonotrode
- Robotic arm

G) Furthermore, Adaptations of the machines for different production setups and scale up studies were performed, aimed to analyse and adapt the different volume of metal to be treated associated to the different transport crucibles and facilities. It has been study some improvements of the Machine based on a robotic arm to reach various capacities and implemented in industrial partners facilities


• The Doshormat technology is adapted for the actual market of transport ladles. However, it is also possible to scale it up for bigger transport ladles.
• Actually, the main functioning of the machine is satisfactory, what let us think that the machine will not require big modifications and just some minor adjustments before being ready for commercialization.
• Alternatively, and taking into account the problems detected in Machine 1, a new solution has been proposed based in a robotic arm. This proposal has been approved by all the consortium members and it has been valued very positively by the potential clients that were consulted
• A big number of casting foundries has been analysed, it has been observed that most of them transport the aluminium is done by ladle. For this reason the final technological approach has been to perform the US treatment do inside the transport ladle. Due to the configuration of most of the foundries the degassing station is the most optimal solution for security and the space.

Potential Impact:

Right from the beginning of the project, it was designed a detailed strategy to ensure a successful impact on the targeted sectors, previously identified in WP4 ‘Market studies and: Competitive Intelligence study of the technology’.
The communication plan included:
- Corporative image
- Press coverage
- Website
- Use of scientific media
- Promotional material: brochures, leaflets and other materials.
Once define the communication plan, choose of media to use and expected results, it started the second stage, dissemination deployment.

Now that this demo project is nearly to end it is possible to assess the level of accomplishment. The results obtained are clearly satisfactory:
- Training events: 3 (Europe)
- Exhibitions: 4 (Europe)
- Conference: 2 (Europe)
- Congresses: 9 (EU, USA)
- Publications: 9 articles
- Website: 1 (project website) +4 (partners website); International
- Project video clip for dissemination activities: 3

Manual for use: It has been produced a manual for users to give support in the correct use of DOSHORMAT machine as well as getting the best of ultrasounds technology to every single need.

The user manual covers the set-up of the whole machine and have also a specific section just for the operation and tuning of the ultrasonic equipment

Open House: An open house were performed to the public to demonstrate the final results of the DOSHORMAT machines. It was performed in Spain in the installation of EURECAT with the participation of 2 companies, 1 industrial association and 3 research institutions, all of them working in the metallurgy sector in Spain.

Pilot demonstrations: a Beta tester programme was addressed to a small group, as we seek improvement from organisations that can generate knowledge from which we can learn. We also need to trust in them. At last, nine candidates have participated in the programme and has helped us to carry out several enhancements implemented in the machine.

Summary of most relevant Dissemination activities carried out (fairs and conferences):

1. The international Trade Fair for Die Casting EUROGUSS, will took place from 14th to 16th January 2014 in Nürnberg (Germany). In this tenth edition, participated almost 500 exhibitors from countries around the world and with the attendance, according to organizers, more than 11,000 visitors.

2. General information about the DOSHORMAT Project was distributed by Prof. Peter Schumacher to major industrial and research organizations at the Annual Meeting of The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society - TMS 2014 143rd Annual Meeting & Exhibition in San Diego, California from 16 to 20 February 2014.

3. At Wire & Tube 2014, 12-13 june in Düsseldorf, no less than the future of the wire and cable industry awaits over 38,000 international trade visitors and decision makers. On a growing area with increasingly attractive trade fair stands, it offers innovation and manufacturing technology competence “en masse”. Decision makers gather information on the latest machines, plants and products here, as well as on ground breaking trends regarding wire and cable. And sit opposite their business partners from all over the world for a personal meeting – the ideal basis for good business.

Success factors wire 2012:
• 1,313 exhibitors from 50 countries – more than ever
• Over 38,000 international trade visitors
• Exemplary infrastructure of the halls
• More than 57,000 m2 generous exhibition space

4. The 58th Austrian Foundry Conference from 24 to 25 April 2014 in Bad Ischl organized by: Austrian Foundry Research Institute (ÖGI), Association of Austrian Foundry Specialists (VÖG), Department of Foundry Technology (LfGk) at the University of Leoben. 23 lectures were presented to 280 participants concerning innovative processes and advanced casting materials from the foundry engineering and metallurgical sectors. In addition 25 exhibitors from the foundry industry as well as foundry consultants gave a closer look to new developments. At this conference ÖGI had a stand where we presented the DOSHORMAT Project (Picture 2).

5. THE TENTH METEF 2014 RELAUNCHES INNOVATION (Verona, Italy). From 11th to 13th June, three days dedicated to the aluminium and innovative metals production chain. Over 400 exhibitors, 30% from 20 foreign countries; trade delegations from 20 countries all over the world; more than 10,000 operators 32% of which from 60 foreign countries, first of Germany, followed by Turkey, Iran and the Eastern European nations, which are strategic markets searching for quality technology and specialization.

6. ANKIROS / ANNOFER / TURKCAST Fairs - 2014 (Istanbul, Turkey) The last edition of this exhibition trio has seen to the ultimate satisfaction for everyone with inimitable opportunities by almost 850 exhibitors from 39 countries, more than 15.000 professional visitors from all around the world, Eurasian Region being the lead, and the concurrent congresses.

7. ÖGI has attended the 54th International Foundry Conference Portorož, Slovenia from 17 to 19 September 2014 organized by the Slovenian Foundrymen Society with the University of Ljubljana and the University of Maribor as co-organisers. The DOSHORMAT Project was published to lecturers, exhibitors and other participants of the conference. The international foundry conference has included numerous lectures and exhibitions of foundries, universities, institutes and industry suppliers.

8. The DOSHORMAT Project was presented by the ÖGI from Dr. Thomas Pabel at the 11th European Conference on Non-Destructive Testing (ECNDT 2014) in Prague, Czech Republic from 6 to 10 October 2014. The event was organized by the Czech NDT Society (CNDT). The 11th ECNDT invited researchers, users, manufacturers and service providers from all fields of non-destructive testing and related fields to actively participate in organizing an interesting and informative programme.

9. HORMESA attended the Aluminium 2014 and hired stand 10E30 Stand 25. This event started on 07 October 2014 and end on 09 October 2014. ALUMINIUM is the world's leading trade show and B2B-platform for the aluminium industry and its important application area. ALUMINIUM Fair is located at Düsseldorf (Germany).

10. The ÖGI has attended the GIFA 2015 (“13. Internationale Giesserei-Fachmesse”) in Düsseldorf, Germany from 16 to 20 June 2015.

11. Open House EURECAT: An open house were performed to the public to demonstrate the final results of the DOSHORMAT machines. It was performed in Spain in the installation of EURECAT with the participation of 2 companies, 1 industrial association and 3 research institutions, all of them working in the metallurgy sector in Spain

• Digital press and papers:

Moreover Brunel University has disseminated project results through digital media as listed below:

1. Ultrasound method reduces dross from castings process, Forming & Fabricating , 05 Dec 2014 Read article
2. Ultrasound cuts costs in producing aluminium alloys, 4 December 2014
Read article
3. Ultrasound cuts costs in the production of aluminium alloys, Design Products & Applications - IML Group plc, 3 December 2014 Read article
4. Ultrasound provides cleaner, more efficient degassing, Electronic Specifier, 9 December 2014 Read article
5. Treating Molten Metal with Ultrasound to Cut Costs in Producing Aluminium Alloys, World Industrial Reporter, 8 December 2014 Read article
6. Ultrasound Processing Cheaper, Greener than Argon Degassing for Aluminium Alloy Production Ultrasound Processing Cheaper, Greener than Argon Degassing for Aluminium Alloy Production, AZoM, 4 December 2014 Read article
7. Evaluation of effect of ultrasonic degassing on components produced by low pressure die Casting, International J Cast Metals Research, M. da Silva, L. Rebolledo, T. Pabel, T. Petkov, X. Planta, J. Tort and D. Eskin.
8. The effect of ultrasonic degassing on the quality and properties of components produced by low and high pressure die casting, International Foundry Research,

• Complementary dissemination resources

Project website::
Facebook account:
Wikipedia page:

• Videos:
A professional video, explaining the DOSHORMAT concept, is available in the project website (project results) and YouTube:
All the dissemination material underlined that DOSHORMAT project has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme managed by REA-Research Executive Agency FP7/2007-2013 under grant agreement n° 606090.


Light alloys play a major role in vehicles weight reduction. In the last years the amount of aluminium parts in new vehicles has been steadily increasing. Moreover, weight is even a more critical factor in newly developed electric and hybrid vehicles, as it highly affects their autonomy. The demand from western transport manufacturers is 26 % for primary aluminium and 38 % for secondary aluminium.

Furthermore, the global green house savings from the use of aluminium in vehicles is expected to double by 2025. The use of aluminium alloys is however limited by the quality and insufficient properties of the cast parts that suffer from gas porosity.

The degassing technology is one of the main components of quality assurance in casting industry. The quality of any as-cast material depends to a great extent on the amount of defects. One of the main defects in near-net shape casting processes is porosity. Currently used methods of degassing have drawbacks and limitations: involve using mixtures of expensive inert gas, health and environment hazards, strict safety rules, large investment and maintenance costs, and/or low efficiency

DOSHORMAT demonstrated the improvement in the melt quality, by reducing the gas content and dross formation, and removing the oxides, highly enhancing the quality and mechanical performance of the components produced (e.g. in transport applications), while meeting the present and future environment regulations

List of Websites:
projetc contacts:

Project Coordination: Enric Sirera ( , Liceth Rebolledo (
Scientific coordinator: Manel Da Silva (