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Spintronics in Graphene

Final Report Summary - SPINOGRAPH (Spintronics in Graphene)

SPINOGRAPH PUBLIC REPORT
(www.spinograph.org)

SPINOGRAPH is a Marie Curie Initial Training Network on "Spintronics in Graphene", bringing together 7 academic and 2 industrial partners to train 15 young researchers doing top class research projects. Spintronics stands for electronics based on the electron spin degree of freedom. The huge success of spintronics in metals, which started from the pioneering discovery of Giant Magnetoresistance (GMR), has revolutionized the magnetoelectronics industry. Exploration of spin effects in other types of materials is leading to an array of fascinating physical phenomena and holds the promise of future breakthroughs. The discovery of graphene, the first truly two dimensional crystal, together with the remarkable progress in the fabrication of graphene devices, have naturally led to the exploration of hybrid graphene/ferromagnetic devices to explore spintronics in graphene.

SPINOGRAPH has been active for 4 years, starting on September 1st 2013. The network counted with 3 universities (Manchester, RWTH Aachen, Groningen), 3 research centers (INL in Braga , IMDEA in Madrid, CNRS in Paris) and 2 small/medium companies (Graphenea in San Sebastian, AMO-GmbH in Aachen). INL has been the coordinator of this network.

SPINOGRAPH has trained a total of 15 researchers, 11 predoctoral and 4 postdoctoral, distributed among 9 partners. The research was organized in 3 Work-Packages:
WP1 spin transport in graphene, WP2 magnetism in graphene and WP 3 Control and Manipulation of Electronic spin in graphene devices

SPINOGRAPH fellows had the chance to be involved a variety of very exciting research projects. This have led them to co-author a total of 46 publications during the lifespan of the project, and several more are on the pipeline. Publications include journals such as Science (1), Nature Nanotechnology (2 ), Physical Review Letters (3), Nature Communications (5), 2D Materials (6), etc. Up to 5 of these publications include fellows two different nodes of the network, that resulted from collaborative research promoted by SPINOGRAPH.

SPINOGRAPH has been at the forefront of research in graphene spintronics, and related areas. Among the main scientific results we can find the following (in chronological order):

• The fabrication of graphene lateral spin valve with record spin diffusion lengths.

24−μm spin relaxation length in boron nitride encapsulated bilayer graphene
J. Ingla-Aynés, M. H. D. Guimarães, R. J. Meijerink, P. J. Zomer, and B. J. van Wees, Phys. Rev. B92, 201410R (2015).

Eighty-Eight Percent Directional Guiding of Spin Currents with 90 μm Relaxation Length in Bilayer Graphene Using Carrier Drift
Josep Ingla-Aynés, Rick J. Meijerink, and Bart J. van Wees
Nano Lett., 10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b01004

• The prediction of a new mechanism to generate Majorana zero modes, based on graphene quantum Hall magnetically ordered states in proximity to a superconductor.
Majorana Zero Modes in Graphene,
P. San-Jose, J. L. Lado, R. Aguado, F. Guinea, and J. Fernández-Rossier, Phys. Rev. X 5, 041042 (2015)

• The isolation of a new 2D Material (InSe) and fabrication of field effect transistor with very large electronic mobility, so high that permits observation of Quantum Hall effect
High electron mobility, quantum Hall effect and anomalous optical response in atomically thin InSe
Denis A. Bandurin, et al., Nature Nanotechnology (2016)

• The proposal and fabrication of a new device concept, a graphene based spin field-effect switch, with a MoS2 electrode
A two-dimensional spin field-effect switch
Wenjing Yan, Oihana Txoperena, Roger Llopis, Hanan Dery, Luis E. Hueso & Fèlix Casanova
Nature Communications 7, 13372 (2016)

This, SPINOGRAPH’s work has been at the forefront of electronics and material science research, covering aspects at all the stages in the R&D: theoretical work and prediction of new physical phenomena in the realm of quantum electronics, discovery of new materials (InSe), fabrication of prototype devices, such as graphene spin valves, showing top figures of merit, and also demonstrating new device concepts.
Our work in an arena with large potential for future technological breakthroughs has also led to the submission of a patent.


The SPINOGRAPH training program has combined schools and workshops, that have counted with renowned speakers and lecturers coming from all over the world, including mostly scientist, but also innovators and researchers working in industry. These events have been attended both by SPINOGRAPH fellows and students external to the network. The SPINOGRAPH fellows have carried out secondments at other partner institutions of the network, with a strong participation of the two SPINOGRAPH private sector partners (Graphenea and AMO-GmbH) and the SPINOGRAPH associate partner THALES as hosts. SPINOGRAPH fellows have also also received training in complementary skills, including courses on scientific communication, both oral and written, imparted by SPINOGRAPH associate partners, ARTESC and GEOSET.

SPINOGRAPH has promoted the outreach of scientific research. We have produced two outreach videos, “The spintronics revolutions” and “The making of graphene”, available in our website (http://www.spinograph.org/article/outreach-videos).
SPINOGRAPH fellows have also produced an outreach blog, available at http://www.spinograph.org/article/outreach-videos that has received more than two thousand visits per entry. Above all, SPINOGRAPH is testimony that bringing together a diverse set of partners, people, countries and working cultures to build something together, is another way European Union contributes to the building of a better world that embraces open societies and inclusiveness.