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Executive Summary:
High value manufacturing is significantly impacted by the successful integration of KEY ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES (KETs) in the value chain. Future successful manufacturing that is adding value to the European Society will increasingly depend on the level of integration of KETs.
KETs are considered as: Essential to achieve globally competitive and sustainable EU manufacturing industry; Providers of an important social return on investments by significantly impacting manufacturing by boosting quality jobs creation. They are strategic in the generation of high value all along many value chains of classic or new industrial sectors in Europe (from materials, equipment and devices, to products and services).

The EU KNIGHTS project aims at enabling strategic integration of key enabling technologies by promoting best practices, highlighting barriers and identifying appropriate business models/strategies in order to stimulate innovation with the goal of maintaining a globally competitive and sustainable European Manufacturing industry.

Project Context and Objectives:
The EU KNIGHTS approach includes a comprehensive study of the integration of KETs in relevant industrial sectors, as manufacturing equipment, printing, rubber & plastics and non-metallic minerals, with the aim of formulating guidelines and recommendations for effective accelerated industrial innovation strategies.
Based on the macro and micro level analysis two types of models are proposed.
The macro model provides guidelines for main stakeholders to improve the process of KETs integration.

At a micro level, EU KNIGHTS model demonstrates important success factors and barriers for successful KETs integration through five building blocks: technology, manufacturing, organization & investment, economy & market and society & culture.
The EU KNIGHTS survey data are used to identify these factors and barriers.

Project Results:
At the first stage of the project the procedure set-up for the analysis of barriers for KETs integration was elaborated. The procedure set-up starting from a state of the art analysis based on previous international and European studies, and from a presentation and highlight of the barriers of KETs integration extracted from a survey result & analysis.
For the EU-KNIGHTS survey a questionnaire was developed in order to survey at least 50 projects (national and European funded).

The first project task has been accomplished so far with the answers of 43 European/national institutional projects. The main barriers appear in both panels like the reproducibility, manufacturing implementation, scalability, access to human resources, access to markets and user acceptance.
The EU KNIGHTs survey has been done with two panels: industrial companies (SMEs and large companies). With the EU KNIGHTS survey 200+ European companies were examined from the industrial sectors: printing, machinery/machine tools, rubbers and plastics, non-metallic minerals.

For the SMEs the main issues appear at the prototype stage, meanwhile it is at the technology development phase for the large companies. When the analysis is done on specific area some other criteria are highlighted; for example SMEs are more issues to get access to capital.
In the task T1.3 was reviewed the best practices at a policy programme level for the support of new technologies, especially the integration of Key Enabling Technologies (KETs), with a view of determining if the KETs (or similar) are in alignment with current needs. This activity involved analysing national and regional sectors (EU) as well as targeting studies from the USA, Japan, China and South Korea. At a global level these countries possess different characteristics with respect to their industrial and governmental structures. As such, a framework characterising these different structures was utilised when comparing technical, economic, societal and political factors in a coherent manner.
In the task T1.4 the main barriers and difficulties in KETs integration in the four EU KNIGHTs selected sectors were identified and analysed. In analysing the various cases, a number of distinctions have been made, such as between technology push and market pull cases, between different stages of development, using Technology Readiness Levels (TRL) and Manufacturing Readiness Levels (MRL). In both company and in project cases most frequently difficulties were encountered in the technology development (TRL 3-5) and the demonstration (TRL 5-6) phase.
In the task T1.5 existing investment policies in regions/clusters with regard to how they address the issue of innovation barriers in the selected sectors were reviewed. For the integration of enabling technologies into products which are successful in the market, the national and regional level of R&I plays a crucial role. A closer look to some of the relevant and successful clusters and collaboration networks shows that they can help to bridge the “innovation gap” in an efficient way.

In the task T2.1 were identified, analysed and mapped the success factors for KETs integration at industry level from R&D and technology development to industrial scale production and market launch, with reference to main conditions and factors driving KETs integration.
In the task T2.2 were identified, analysed and mapped success factors for KETs integration at company level from R&D and technology development to industrial scale production and market launch, with reference to main conditions and factors driving KETs integration.
In the task T2.3 were determined ex-ante requirements (necessary and/or sufficient conditions) for successful KETs integration and identifying indicators to measure KETs integration success factors as main input for other WPs.

Identification of the role of the KETs in current industrial production, in the targeted sectors was done in the task T3.1 Identification of relevant value chains per sector and how the KETs are being integrated at each value-chain stage were studied and analysed in the task T3.2.
Impact of KETs integration on innovation, role of the stakeholders of the value chain were studied and analysed in the task T3.3. The EU KNIGHTS model for KETs integration in industrial production was elaborated in the task T3.4.
This work was aimed at wrapping up the main findings of previous tasks and focus on success factors for KETs integration. The alignment of existing models as “Promoter Model”, “Commercialisation process”, “Transfer bridges / Transition modes”, “Value Creation System” and “Innovation System” with EU KNIGHTS key criteria to successful KETs integration has been carried out. The EU KNIGHTS macro level model based on these findings is presented in the figure.

Review of the State-of-the-Art of three historic examples of successful KETs integration was done in the task T4.1.
The validation and refinement of the KETs integration models from WP2 and WP3 on two manufacturing industrial cases has been performed in the task T4.2.
Identification of main and relevant manufacturing sectors was done in the task T4.3. Then the analysis of the role of KETs in two relevant Roadmaps (SPIRE and FoF PPP Roadmaps) covering respectively the process industry and the discrete manufacturing industry was performed. The analysis, on the base of our survey and workshop results, was performed in order to formulate recommendations for future calls.

In the task T5.1 a sophisticated SWOT analysis in the four EU KNIGHTS sectors (rubber & plastics, ceramics, 3D printing and manufacturing equipment) as well as SWOT analysis of regions had been realised, building on a EU KNIGHTS specific methodology.
Identification of priority areas for the integration of KETs was performed in the task T5.2. We have compiled a set factors and issues, for which similarities between the sectors in the focus of this study could be found and the transferability to other industrial sectors is supposed to be likely.

Moreover, we have pointed out differences between the sectors and analysed how these can be explained by key characteristics of the sector. These explanations may indicate how these particular results are relevant for a certain set of sectors with similar characteristics. Overall, the results show that there are many common cross-sectorial success factors and barriers. The empirical results for the different sub-sectors of the four sectors can be generalised on a sectorial level, at least in our chosen example of the heterogeneous manufacturing equipment sector as an example, and can indeed conclude that for this sector the project results have a rather high representativeness for the whole sector.
We assessed two roadmaps of FoF and SPIRE (for the discrete manufacturing respective process industry) regarding the extent to which the KETs integration is already planned and how the key success factors for KETs integration had been taken up. KETs are considered explicitly in the FoF and the SPIRE roadmaps adequately: the research topics are of significant relevance for various KETs. Moreover, we draw some overall recommendations for both roadmaps by comparing the cross-sectorial results with the roadmaps.
The focus of task T5.3 was on the collection of the minutes of the different industrial workshops. Seven industrial workshops have been organised from Month 12 to month 17 with the support of European clusters (e.g. Plastipolis, CRITT/MDTS, Proplast, Pôle Européen de la Céramique). More than 120 industries participated to these seven workshops. During the industrial EU-KNIGHTS workshops presenting the project results, a focus per each of the 4 sectors was done. Identifying and prioritising the main sub-criteria (barriers and success factors) for KETs integration in the four above sectors based on the main criteria highlighted from the interviews’ results was also done. Illustrating by some industrial examples of KETs integration in order to validate the ranking of the sub-criteria obtained during the industrial workshops has been performed.
Recommendations for an effective integration of KETs were elaborated in the task T5.4. The concept for the business and policy toolkit has been developed.

Task T5.5 is built on the results achieved in work packages 2, 3 and 4 defining a methodology that allows presenting a final set of recommendations to the three target groups in order to define requirements-oriented strategies for a successful KETs integration.
As a result of this process, the factsheets for key sub-criteria identified and prioritised in the project had been developed. The factsheets provide an overview on the available results gathered from the EU KNIGHTS survey and sector-specific workshops in an illustrative manner, complemented by individual statements from the interviewees or workshop participants. In total, twelve factsheets were elaborated (in three variations each). These factsheets are included in the booklets developed in deliverable D6.4.

Establishment of the EU KNIGHTS dissemination strategy was continuously reviewed and updated in task T6.1. Within Task 6.3 and in close cooperation with WP5, the results from the project were fully analysed to arrive at a set of global recommendations on integrating KETs and also specific recommendations for the three focus groups targeted by the EU KNIGHTS project, namely policy makers, industry and clusters.
These recommendations have been formulated based on evidence obtained by the project from the 400 industrial stakeholders involved, 300 interviews conducted (both industry and project coordinators) and views of the 100+ participants in the six workshops. The output from task T6.3 is three booklets on the Integration of KETs. The three booklets comprise a generic section followed by specific recommendations aimed at the target groups: industry, clusters, and policy makers.

Potential Impact:
EU KNIGHTS project offers an analysis of barriers for KETs integration by institutional funded projects and by industrial sectors. Analysis of best practices for KETs integration at European level and worldwide was performed.
Mapping of the KETs integration barriers and best practices by crosscutting technology push vs. market pull approaches should be noted as interesting result of the project.
Review report of EU investment regional policies is presented in one of the project deliverables.

Success factors for KETs integration at innovation strategies / industry level and at innovation models / company level have been identified.
Impact of roles of stakeholders in the value chain on KETs integration was carefully studied and EU KNIGHTS model for KETs integration was elaborated.
Comparative study of best practices identified from the historical success stories of KETs integration vs EU KNIGHTS results was performed and the refined EU KNIGHTS model for successful KETs integration is proposed.

On the basis of the SWOT analysis the most relevant areas for the integration of KETs have been selected and prioritised.
Business and policy toolkit for successful KETs integration has been developed.
EU KNIGHTS final sets of key recommendations for successful manufacturing KETs integration towards targeted stakeholders is the one of relevant results of the project. Dissemination actions were elaborated and performed: website, workshops and Satellite Group meetings.
In order to promote the project outputs and the EU KNIGHTS model, 3 specific booklets of recommendations have been prepared to address the main stakeholders concerned by KETs integration. These results are presented in 25 public deliverables.

The globalization of manufacturing as the result of different forces (social, economic, technical and political) requires the special management strategies of the organization of production to ensure the competitiveness of enterprises.
Business and marketing strategies and technological resources play a key role for competition in a global market. Manufacture of high value is significantly affected by the successful integration of KETs in the value chain of production. The complexity of modern ecosystems in which the company develops innovative projects requires thorough analysis of the relevant interfaces and communication channels between producers of KETs and KETs-integration companies.
Thus, based on specific criteria from the literature and data from the EU-KNIGHTS survey, the characteristics of the process of commercialisation for KETs integration, and roles of involved stakeholders are analysed.
The EU KNIGHTS project offers the study how to enable strategic integration of KETs by promoting best practices, highlighting barriers and identifying appropriate business models / strategies to stimulate innovation. Elaboration of new model for European industrial manufacturing approach is based on the analysis of the five following building blocks: Technological domain, Manufacturing domain, Organisational and Investment domain, Economy and Market domain, and Social and Cultural domain.

Based on the two level of analysis the key recommendations and guidelines for different stakeholders have been produced. In order to best enjoy the results of these studies an elaborated tool kit is developed in close contact with industrial companies. The website was created to communicate the EU KNIGHTS results and to have the feedback from users of the EU KNIGHTS model. The objective is the improvement and the evolution of the proposed model. Booklets with general and specific recommendations were sent to key stakeholders and industries surveyed by EU KNIGHTS project partners.

At European level, the industry and policy makers will benefit the findings and recommendations resulted from this project. To win the attractive game for the integration of key enabling technologies, it is necessary to have intelligent and patient players with a clear view of the playing field and the rules of the game. It is necessary to emphasize that the disruptive technology brings challenges and also profound changes not only in technology but also in other levels. It is important to be aware of the ingredient for success.

The factsheets elaborated by the EU KNIGHTS project are tools to remind industrial companies and decision makers that it is necessary to check for successful innovation project. In the factsheets the user can find several factors per criteria, builds on the sub criteria elaborated by the EU KNIGHTS consortium and ranked by the workshops’ participants. These sub criteria were allocated either to the R&D phase (low TRL) or to the prototype/scale-up phase (high TRL) or to both these phases. The relevance of the criterion for the specific development stages (based on TRL) is highlighted. It is specified in which step the potential problem must be considered and preferably solved.
Finally, the user can find the recommendations for the respective stakeholders: industry directly, clusters or policy makers.

EU KNIGHTS project offers also a Business Toolkit for EU industry. Indeed the innovation managers, with respect to the TRL of their project, could check the main aspects to be taken into account when carrying out a project from the technical and business/commercial point of view, obtaining a Probability of Success Factor and some advices and suggestions on how to tackle weak points.
The EU KNIGHTS project gives recommendations for an adaptable, sustainable and competitive KETs integration scheme, supporting the transition of European Industry towards more sustainable production and consumption patterns.
KETs integration offers a wide variety of market opportunities for the European industry. Successfully bridging the valley of death requires a clear, deliberate and well-chosen innovation strategy at company level, so that the best practice solutions can be found based on the EU KNIGHTS project results.

The studies conducted by the EU KNIGHTS project have established some key trends.
A major emerging trend is that the level of complexity of KETs integration requires a multidisciplinary, cross-sectorial approach along the technology readiness scale. As a result, traditional sector boundaries are becoming blurred and value chains increasingly global and complex. Advances in manufacturing technologies and the increasing demand for personalised products have created favourable conditions for re-shoring manufacturing operations from low labour cost regions. Scientific solutions reinforce this trend and contribute to increased jobs creation in Europe and supports new forms of urban and local manufacturing. The complexity of the global manufacturing landscape demands a balanced approach towards the management of the value chain, combining local manufacturing with global supply chains as a mean for meeting the two key requirements of being sustainable and not supporting slavery. The integration of KETs is influenced by dramatic demographic changes including an ageing population, which have significant impact on future consumer choices, market demand and the availability of a skilled workforce.
All EU KNIGHTS recommendations are consolidated in the booklets and sent to the interviewed companies, cluster networks and also to the European Commission.
The Toolkit will be put on a USB key and will be sent to industrial and cluster.
The website was created to communicate the EU KNIGHTS results and to have the feedback from users of the EU KNIGHTS model. The objective is the improvement and the evolution of the proposed model.

List of Websites:

Project public website adress:

EU Knights Project Coordinator:
Dr. Bertrand Fillon