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Nutrition and Bladder Cancer

Final Report Summary - BLADDER CANCER EPID (Nutrition and Bladder Cancer)

Background:

Bladder cancer is the most expensive malignancy to treat from diagnosis until death, and is the 7th most common cancer worldwide. As is the case for many types of cancer, the development of bladder cancer is likely to be influenced by diet. The role of diet in bladder cancer could be particularly pronounced because the bladder is an excretion organ. It has been indicated that one-third of all bladder cancer deaths could have been prevented by dietary modifications. Efforts towards the prevention of bladder cancer by dietary recommendations could therefore lead to a substantial reduction of morbidity, mortality and healthcare costs. This study aims to increase the understanding of the influences of foods, nutrients and dietary patterns combined on the prevention of bladder cancer by bringing together the world’s data on this topic.

Method/Design
The BLadder cancer, Epidemiology and Nutritional Determinants (BLEND) study was set up with the purpose of collecting individual patient data from observational studies on diet and bladder cancer. BLEND includes data of 18 case-control and 6 cohort studies on diet and bladder cancer, from 12 different countries across the world (i.e Belgium, Canada, China, France, Germany, Japan, Italy, United Kingdom, USA, Spain, Sweden and Taiwan), representing data for 11,261 bladder cancer cases and 675,532 controls. Homogenization of the dietary data was done by making use of a Eurocode 2 Core classification version 99/1 based codebook. Besides dietary data, BLEND also has data on ethnicity, TNM classification of malignant tumor, smoking status, smoking frequency and duration and family history.

Results

Currently, our analyses on single food items are still ongoing, although preliminary results will be presented confidentially in this report. The first definitive results on the adherence to the Mediterranean Diet show an inverse effect of high versus low adherence to the Mediterranean diet and bladder cancer risk (OR: 0.90 [95% CI 0.80 0.99]). This result was even more pronounced among women with a non-muscle-invasive type of bladder cancer (OR:0.75 [95% CI 0.55 0.96]).

Discussion

The large number of cases included in this study, resulting in much statistical power, will enable us to provide further evidence for the current dietary recommendations for the prevention of bladder cancer.

More information can be found on: http://dietandbladdercancer.org/
Contact details: Anke Wesselius, PhD: anke.wesselius@maastrichtuniversity.nl