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Ground Demonstration of Plant Cultivation Technologies and Operation in Space for Safe Food Production on-board ISS and Future Human Space Exploration Vehicles and Planetary Outposts

Deliverables

PHM design document

PHM Design Report will contain inputs from the other partners working in PHM and a suitable architecture for plant health monitoring will be delivered from DLO & TPZ & AST, containing: Design approach and H/W selection comparison and justification, Preliminary H/W Drawings, Block diagrams, data flows, PHM Requirement Documents (ALL), manufacturing drawings, including Interfaces specifications , I/O list, Component list (sensors, acquisition units), Material list, Technical data sheets of the components, Electrical schemes, electrical connection labeling, Factory and site acceptance tests, User Manuals, PHM acceptance test plan consolidation (ALL), Hardware procurement and integration plan definition (ALL) AST will further describe Test procedures for Tests with E-Nose, Test Reports on Tests with E-Nose, Test procedures for Tests with TransMADDS, Test Reports on Tests with TransMADDS. A first draft version of this document will be delivered one month before the CDR.

LS performance document

Document will be prepared based on the collected data and measurements. The document will contain, in particular, report of stability of the system (light output, maintenance of temperature and communication), report about aging of optical components. It will contain also guidelines for future improvement and possibility of further increase energy efficiency of plant production. TAS-I will contribute to the LS performance verification activity report for the test segment dedicated to the ISPR cultivation system. The report will include: the results of post-processing of data monitoring of ISPR LS performance during validation; eventual failure analysis.

Microbial test results

The test report will encompass the description of the samples taken, number of colony forming units after growth under different conditions, identification of selected isolates based on 16S and 18S rRNA gene analyses, community profiling by the molecular analysis of selected samples taken at different points in time during operation, comparison to E-nose results, if available.

NDS design document

The Nutrient delivery system design document will consist of the following subsections: NDS theory and operation principles; Technical description and drawings; Part identification and description; Assembly procedures; Functional test procedures; Maintenance and disinfection procedures; Results of bench tests TAS-I will contribute to the overall NDS design document by providing design details for the ISPR segment, including as a minimum: Design justification; 3D (CAD) drawings; Interface drawings and 2D engineering drawing; Parts and material list; Electrical schemes and labelling; Components datasheets; User manual. A first draft version of this document will be delivered one month before the CDR.

LS design document

According the documents and specifications from WP2 a technical project of LS will be prepared. The current optical and electrical solutions of HS products will be modified and improved to meet the defined expectations. The document will include, in particular, power consumption, LED composition, models of light intensity and light distribution of luminaire, and technical details of water-cooling system. It will include also arrangements concerning maintenance and service. A first draft version of this document will be delivered one month before the CDR.

Dissemination plan

Dissemination Plan describing the planned dissemination efforts. A final report will be delivered before the end of the project.

PCD and CDH design document

The PCD and CDH design document describes the actual design of the two systems, including CAD drawings, circuit plans, and integration and maintenance procedures. It also includes a list of recommended spare parts which need to be sent to Neumayer III together with the facility itself. TAS-I will contribute to the overall PCD & CDH design document by providing design details for the ISPR segment, including as a minimum: design justification, 3D (CAD) drawings, interface drawings and 2D engineering drawing, parts and material list, electrical schemes and labelling, components datasheets, user manual. A first draft version of this document will be delivered one month before the CDR.

Operations validation results

TPZ will be responsible of the overall Operational procedures validation process through the following items: MoM of the procedures review telecons held by the panel of experts in order to certificate, change or modify each single procedure involved; The implementation of the changed agreed during the telecons by the issue of an updated release of the User Manual; The validation of each single procedure through the various test campaigns before the delivery of the final procedure release prior to the Antarctic test campaign. Eventual changes of one (or more) procedure during the execution of the Antarctic test campaign if requested by the onsite personnel.

EC performance document

TAS-I will actively contribute to the EC performance verification activity report for the test segment dedicated to the ISPR cultivation system. The report will include: the results of post-processing of data monitoring of ISPR EC performance during validation, eventual failure analysis. Moreover, TAS-I will collect and integrate within the document AS contribute to EC performance verification activity report for the test segment dedicated to the FEG cultivation system.

Operation Procedures test report

TPZ will deliver the Operation procedures test report document, encompassing the AIT result for each single procedure delivered in the User System Manual (as per WP 2.5). Each procedure tested during the AIT will be implemented with comments and proposed changes. The updated procedures will be enclosed in the subsequent issue of the User Manual. An updated version of the “Operation modes and test plans” (D2.7) will be delivered, based on the inputs of the other project partners.

Final project report

The final project report summarizes the project highlights and technical achievements. A complete list of all publications associated with the EDEN ISS project is part of the report. Furthermore, the project performance, results and the effectiveness of the outreach activities are described and analysed.

CFD simulation report

The report will describe the domain analysed in terms of air management, thus the defeaturing employed in order to reduce the real life conditions to a mathematical model both in terms of geometry and boundary conditions. All physical hypotheses employed will be duly described, and the input from the design of WP2.3 in terms of data sheets and similar will be documented. The report will describe the ducting system and the air management in the facility, 2 scenarios will be simulated for steady state conditions, as well as a transient failure or start-up scenario. Another part of the simulation will be the analysis of the interaction of the test facility (container) with the external environment at Antarctica. A series of graphs and plots on sections to be defined will help to gain the insight on the domain.

Operation modes and test plans

TPZ will prepare an user manual containing a general facility description part (by hardware point of view), a general scientific objectives description (to be provided by scientific team involved), a set of operational procedures [nominal procedure (to conduct scientific activity and/or nominal hardware and software operations), off-nominal procedure (to handle all the possible failures/mishaps), recovery procedure (dedicated to restore hardware full capability), maintenance procedure (dedicated to maintain hardware capability over the time)] and a test plan part (to be convened with scientific team involved) with a timeframe (GANTT like) plan detailing all the activitis (excluded the off nominal ones) to be performed to meet the scientific objectives.

Palatability and contamination report

LIT will collect and integrate in situ palatability data from DLR-RY, post-mission microbial analysis from CNR into the report, which will contain, at a minimum, subjective assessments of the crew on palatability and post-mission assessment of microbial contaminants.

Design report

The Design report documents the results of the Concurrent-Engineering study conducted in this WP. The report describes the design in such detail that the design of each subsystem can be commenced (e.g. CATIA drawings, mass-, thermal-, power- budgets as well as interfaces, equipment dimensions).

Hardware interface document

Hardware Interface Document will define all hardware interfaces for the mobile test facility and the ISS standard payload rack. This will include both external interfaces and internal subsystem interfaces. These interfaces will include mechanical, power, EMC, CDH, thermal environmental and acoustic. In particular ISS standard hardware ISPR interfaces will be applied to the maximum extent possible to ease integration in the future ISS application. Also an analysis of required spare parts with respect to commonality & standardisation will be delivered in the document.

ISPR test results

TAS-I will include in the ISPR test results document the outcomes of the ISPR demonstration activity in laboratory environment at TAS-I premises. The test report will include the following information, as a minimum: verification of subsystems buffers, evaluation of system closure, confirmation of crop types selected for testing, resources use (e.g. labour, energy, mass) assessment, waste assessment, safety assessment, assessment on the adequacy and readiness of the ISPR cultivation system. Moreover, TAS-I will integrate and homogenize the LIT contribute expected as reporting of the activities at LIT premises (grow crops under mission relevant conditions of light, temperature, RH and CO2), including evaluation by LIT of inputs (water, nutrients, power, CO2, operations) and productivity (total biomass, edible biomass).

Plant cultivation instructions

DLO will document cultivation protocols for the selected crops with the required water and nutrient use in accordance with optimal light and climate settings. Worst-case settings will also be briefly described. A simple monitoring protocol with respect to, but not limited to possible plant diseases will be defined by DLO for use by personnel with limited training. First draft version of the report will be delivered at the starting point of the AIT grow-out phase. DLO will document general cultivation processes in a document “Plant cultivation instructions”.

Plant analysis report

The report will contain: a list of suitable vegetables with their associated properties with respect to human and physical constraints; plant selection; the I/O mass and energy flow of the selected crops; when the interchange of the closed loop (water and air) with the human quarters have been quantified, the remaining need for filtering/conditioning will be identified; morphological and metabolic factors, plant life cycle, light, biomass output.

Food quality testing, safety and processing manual

CNR, in collaboration with LIT and TPZ (and eventually other groups) will define, edit and validate protocols related to (1.) Quality testing of plant food to be produced during all steps of the project, (2.) the analysis of safety characteristics of plant food to be produced during all steps of the project (3.) food processing procedures to make the plant food to be produced during all steps of the project. Protocols will be defined for each selected species in relation to its contribution to the crew diet, the safety specific risks and the species specific need for post processing, including storage and cooking. Protocols will be defined also in relation to the location and type of sample. Specific procedure will be defined for in-situ and remote evaluation of attributes.

SMS design document

The document will outline the structural design of the overall test facility, ISPR section, and service section FEG section as well as support platform. TAS-I, AS, AWI, and DLR-RY will contribute to the overall SMS design document by providing design details for the ISPR segment, including as a minimum: Design justification, 3D (CAD) drawings, Interface drawings and 2D engineering drawing, Parts and material list, Electrical schemes and labelling, Components datasheets. A first draft version of this document will be delivered one month before the CDR.

PHM performance document

Document will outline the different performance values of the overall PHM architecture inside the test facility. Time dependant evolutions of certain plant health related values will be given and sources for disturbances/failures will be analysed. AST, DLO, and ME will further contribute to this document with respect to their findings in this field. TAS-I will contribute to the PHM performance verification activity report for the test segment dedicated to the ISPR cultivation system. The report will include: the results of post-processing of data monitoring of ISPR PHM performance during validation; eventual failure analysis.

Psychological report

Report and data will be provided in an anonymized matter (agreed within the project). Extraordinary events will be summarized. A common evaluation of crew development and individual wellness will be given. Data matrix Time – individual psychological mood; Data matrix Time – individual learn progress; Data matrix Time – crew cohesion, single crew member involvement.

Software interface document

Software Interface Document will define all software interfaces for the mobile test facility and the ISS standard payload rack. This will include external system interfaces and internal subsystem interfaces covering commanding and data handling, housekeeping data and auxiliary data. TPZ will identify, define and detail the data to be collected in terms of type (Raw, processed), protocol, transmission connection according with scientific team indication, for the following items: Greenhouse environmental data; Cultivation root zone data; and Cultivar data => (exhaustive list to be confirmed in coordination with all scientific partners). Especially, the interface analysis with the control system (refer to WP3.6) will be delivered in this document.

Future ISPR design study report and recommendations for use onboard ISS

TAS-I will collect and harmonize the contributions of all WP contributors into the future ISPR design study report, including LIT contribution to on-orbit plant growth aspects and TPZ contribution to possible ISS testing activities and procedures. TAS-I will actively contribute to adapt to the possible ISS exploitation of the developed and tested ISPR cultivation system (e.g. adapting to microgravity, improving the design). TPZ will support TAS-I to the future ISPR design study report, relying both in the Antarctic test campaign outcome and in the its own experience in ISS operations with Class 1 ISPR payloads like FSL and EDR. TPZ will support TAS-I to the recommendations for application on ISS through the proposal of operations R/T TM/TC HCI software to be used in real space ISS environment relying into the its own experience acquired with the participation to the ESA-FRC programme supporting various Class 1 and Class e ISPR payloads. Results from the FEG campaigns will also be considered within this WP.

EC design document

TAS-I will collect and integrate within the document ES contribute to the ISPR and FEG flow dynamic analysis, as well as AS contribute to the FEG EC design. Moreover, TAS-I will actively contribute to the overall EC design document by providing design details for the ISPR segment, including as a minimum: Design justification, 3D (CAD) drawings, Interface drawings and 2D engineering drawing, Parts and material list, Electrical schemes and labelling, Components datasheets, and User manual. A first draft version of this document will be delivered one month before the CDR.

Market analysis and technology database

A report describing and evaluating potential applications of the CEA technologies developed. It will contain a table of suitable technologies, their estimated potential and barriers to adoption.

Food quality, safety and processing results

All analytical protocols (D4.3) will be applied as relevant and generate data, notes, visual materials and feedbacks. Analytical data will be treated with conventional scientific approaches (such as statistical evaluation, compare and contrast tests with existing literature data, expression as table and graphs) in order to make them available to other project partners and eventually for the international technical and scientific community. All results will be made available for the project for integration in other WPs and communication activities.

Initial system test report

The Initial system test report documents the initial status of the facility after the deployment at Neumayer III. The report will include a list of damages occurred during the transportation (if any), a detailed documentation about the initiation process of the facility and results from the initial subsystem tests. TAS-I will contribute to the initial system test report for the test segment dedicated to the ISPR cultivation system. The report will include: the results of post-processing of data monitoring of ISPR system performance during validation, telepresence/assistance reports of on-site ISPR system adjustments, repairing and components exchange during intermediate shut down, eventual failure analysis. TPZ will contribute to the Initial system test report through the log of all the R/T operations conducted during the campaign.

System requirements document

Systems Requirements Document will define all system and subsystem requirements (e.g. functional requirements) for both the ATS in Antarctica and ISS application. Requirements will cover mechanical, power, EMC, CDH, thermal, environmental and acoustic. The document will especially cover all parameters about the environmental factors present at the Neumayer Station 3 (wind loads, mass, power, human factors, etc.). Furthermore, requirements will be defined for maximum compatibility with ISS standard ISPR requirements to allow for ease of integration in the future ISS application. A first issue of this document needs to be delivered to the project lead after month three of the project.

Overall sytem performance document

The Overall system performance document describes the evolution of parameters concerning the overall system (e.g. energy consumption, water consumption, CO2 consumption, total biomass production, outside temperature, wind speeds, spare parts used).

Exploitation strategy

Plan for the scientific and economic exploitation of the EDEN ISS results.

Future greenhouse design study report

Design and feasibility study of planetary greenhouse system as integrated part of human surface exploration scenarios. Lessons learned from the FEG campaign at Antarctica will be included in this study. The design study will be performed within the CEF of DLR (Bremen). Content of this report will be detailed subsystem considerations (incl. technology trade-offs), mass-, power-, thermal budgets. Suitable inflatable principles for the cultivation systems will be analysed. Preliminary cost estimate and performance values (e.g. biomass output, recyclable water capacity) will be included in this report.

NDS performance document

The nutrient delivery system performance documentation will include sensor data, graphs and interpretation of plant growth and development during remote deployment. System malfunctions and failures will be documented and mitigation methods will be recommended for future upgrade and expansion. TAS-I will contribute to the NDS performance verification activity report for the test segment dedicated to the ISPR cultivation system. The report will include: the results of post-processing of data monitoring of ISPR NDS performance during validation, eventual failure analysis.

Overall system test report

The Overall system test report describes the preparation, execution and results of the overall system test which is part of the AIT. The performance of each subsystem and the overall system is described. Furthermore, subsystem failures will be documented and when possible new design solutions elaborated. TAS-I will contribute to the overall system test report for the test segment dedicated to the ISPR cultivation system. The report will include: the results of post-processing of data monitoring of ISPR system performance during validation, telepresence/assistance reports of on-site ISPR system adjustments, repairing and components exchange during intermediate shut down, eventual failure analysis. TPZ, HS, UoG, and AS will contribute to the overall system test report through the report produced by their personnel onsite during the overall system AIT.

Newsletter 4

Press release and newsletter to be distributed among a broad range of relevant scientific and industrial stakeholders and to the major press agencies within Europe on announcing the final outcomes of the project. Also published on the EDEN ISS web page.

Newsletter 1

Press release to be distributed among a broad range of relevant scientific and industrial stakeholders and to the major press agencies within Europe. Also published on the EDEN ISS web page.

Lecture material

From the EDEN ISS project themes interesting to teenagers and to students will be identified and lecture material for their teachers and professors produced. This will also supplement D 7.8 and will be published on the website.

Animation works

Animated PC renderings of the greenhouse module for inclusion in various media formats (e.g. TV documentaries).

Website

Webpage highlighting the relevant project information which is being updated in the course of the project. The web platform will also provide secure non-public communication for the partners and an upload area for sharing documents (DLR server). A first issue of the website will be published in month 3.

Online-documentary

Online-documentary on the project highlighting the key activities in the project including feature interviews with personnel.

Newsletter 3

Third public newsletter on EDEN ISS approaches and results highlighting the upcoming Antarctica demonstration to be distributed among a broad range of relevant scientific and industrial stakeholders. Also published on the EDEN ISS web page.

Newsletter 2

Second public newsletter on EDEN ISS approaches and results highlighting the upcoming laboratory demonstration to be distributed among a broad range of relevant scientific and industrial stakeholders. Also published on the EDEN ISS web page.

Experiment-tray toolkit

A small experiment-tray toolkit will be developed by the consortium (similar to the ESA grow kit, developed by the consortium partner AeroSekur in 2012). These experiment toolkits will be distributed to school classes within the European member states and Canada. A similar kit will be taken to Antarctica and used for real-time participation/interaction between schools and expedition personnel.

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Publications

CHOOSING CROPS FOR CULTIVATION IN SPACE

Author(s): Dueck, Tom; Kempkes, Frank; Meinen, Esther; Stanghellini, Cecilia
Published in: 2016
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.60430

Service Section Design of the EDEN ISS Project

Author(s): Vrakking, Vincent; Bamsey, Matthew; Zeidler, Conrad; Zabel, Paul; Schubert, Daniel; Romberg, Oliver
Published in: 2017

Existing and new proposals of Space analog, off-grid and sustainable habitats with Space applications

Author(s): Schlacht, Irene Lia; Foing, B.; Bannova, O.; Blok, F.; Mangeot, A.; Nebergall, K.; Ono, A.; Schubert, D.
Published in: 2016

A case study in the application of failure analysis techniques to Antarctic Systems: EDEN ISS

Author(s): Antanio Santos, Virginia Infante, Matthew Bamsey, Daniel Schubert
Published in: 2016 IEEE International Symposium on Systems Engineering (ISSE), 2016, Page(s) 1-7
DOI: 10.1109/syseng.2016.7753159

Review of Antarctic greenhouses and plant production facilities: A historical account of food plants on the ice

Author(s): Bamsey, Matthew; Zabel, Paul; Zeidler, Conrad; Gyimesi, David; Schubert, Daniel; Kohlberg, Eberhard; Mengedoht, Dirk; Rae, Joanna
Published in: 2015

Introducing EDEN ISS - A European project on advancing plant cultivation technologies and operations

Author(s): Zabel, Paul; Bamsey, Matthew; Zeidler, Conrad; Vrakking, Vincent; Johannes, Bernd-Wolfgang; Rettberg, Petra; Schubert, Daniel; Romberg, Oliver; Imhof, Barbara; Davenport, Robert; Hoheneder, Waltraut; Waclavicek, René; Gilbert, Chris; Hogle, Molly; Battistelli, Alberto; Stefanoni, Walter; Moscatello, Stefano; Proietti, Simona; Santi, Guglielmo; Nazzaro, Filomena; Fratianni, Florinda; Coppola, Raf
Published in: 2015

Early trade-offs and top-level design drivers for Antarctic greenhouses and plant production facilities

Author(s): Bamsey, Matthew; Zabel, Paul; Zeidler, Conrad; Vrakking, Vincent; Schubert, Daniel; Kohlberg, Eberhard; Stasiak, Michael; Graham, Thomas
Published in: 2016

The EDEN ISS Rack-Like Plant Growth Facility

Author(s): Boscheri, Giorgio; Guarnieri, V.; Locantore, I.; Lamantea, M.; Lobascio, C.; Schubert, D.
Published in: 2016

The preliminary design of the EDEN ISS Mobile Test Facility - An Antarctic greenhouse

Author(s): Zabel, Paul; Bamsey, Matthew; Zeidler, Conrad; Vrakking, Vincent; Schubert, Daniel; Romberg, Oliver; Boscheri, Giorgio; Dueck, Tom
Published in: 2016

Status of the EDEN ISS Rack-like food production unit after five months in Antarctica

Author(s): Boscheri, Giorgio; Marchitelli, Giovanni; Volponi, Marco; Zabel, Paul
Published in: 2018

Status of the EDEN ISS greenhouse after on-site installation in Antarctica

Author(s): Schubert, Daniel; Bamsey, Matthew; Zabel, Paul; Zeidler, Conrad; Vrakking, Vincent
Published in: 2018

Future Exploration Greenhouse Design of the EDEN ISS

Author(s): Paul Zabel, Matthew Bamsey, Conrad Zeidler, Vincent Vrakking, Daniel Schubert, Oliver Romberg
Published in: 2017

Main performance results of the EDEN ISS rack-like plant growth facility

Author(s): Giorgio Boscheri, Marco Volponi, Matteo Lamantea, Cesare Lobascio, Daniel Schubert, Paul Zabel
Published in: 2017

Crewtime in a Space Greenhouse based on the Operation of the EDEN ISS Greenhouse in Antarctica

Author(s): Paul Zabel, Conrad Zeidler, Vincent Vrakking, Markus Dorn, Daniel Schubert
Published in: 2019

EDEN ISS Rack-like food production unit: results after mission in Antarctica

Author(s): Giorgio Boscheri, Giovanni Marchitelli, C. Lobascio, A. Saverino, Paul Zabel
Published in: 2019

EDEN ISS: A Plant Cultivation Technology for Spaceflight

Author(s): Paul Zabel, Conrad Zeidler
Published in: Handbook of Life Support Systems for Spacecraft and Extraterrestrial Habitats, 2019

Growing fresh food on future space missions: Environmental conditions and crop management

Author(s): Esther Meinen, Tom Dueck, Frank Kempkes, Cecilia Stanghellini
Published in: Scientia Horticulturae, Issue 235, 2018, Page(s) 270-278, ISSN 0304-4238
DOI: 10.1016/j.scienta.2018.03.002

Initial survey on fresh fruit and vegetable preferences of Neumayer Station crew members: Input to crop selection and psychological benefits of space-based plant production systems

Author(s): M. Mauerer, D. Schubert, P. Zabel, M. Bamsey, E. Kohlberg, D. Mengedoht
Published in: Open Agriculture, Issue 1/1, 2016, ISSN 2391-9531
DOI: 10.1515/opag-2016-0023

The Plant Health Monitoring System of the EDEN ISS Space Greenhouse in Antarctica During the 2018 Experiment Phase

Author(s): Conrad Zeidler, Paul Zabel, Vincent Vrakking, Markus Dorn, Matthew Bamsey, Daniel Schubert, Antonio Ceriello, Raimondo Fortezza, Domenico De Simone, Cecilia Stanghellini, Frank Kempkes, Esther Meinen, Angelo Mencarelli, Gert-Jan Swinkels, Anna-Lisa Paul, Robert J. Ferl
Published in: Frontiers in Plant Science, Issue 10, 2019, ISSN 1664-462X
DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2019.01457

Impact of Plants in Isolation: The EDEN-ISS Human Factors Investigation in Antarctica

Author(s): Irene Lia Schlacht, Harald Kolrep, Daniel Schubert, Giorgio Musso
Published in: Advances in Human Factors of Transportation, 2019, Page(s) 794-806