Our project examines how memories are consolidated by the bidirectional neural interactions between two brain regions, the neocortex and hippocampus. Memories are initially encoded by the hippocampus, but during sleep, these memories are transferred to neocortex for long term storage. Our research investigates a neural phenomenon (replay), by which patterns of neural activity first occurring during a behavioral episode repeat spontaneously, after the conclusion of the behavioral episode. Replay is a neural memory trace, and provides a mechanism for transferring memories between brain regions. Understanding how memories are formed and stored in the brain is a central objective in our research, and has important implications for understanding the underlying memory related problems arising from many brain disorders, such as dementia.