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Conversion of Low Grade Heat to Power through closed loop Reverse Electro-Dialysis


2nd webvideo

A webvideo presenting the projects results


A website introducing the project and providing regular progress updates

1st webvideo

A webvideo introducing the project and the technological concept

2nd leaflet

A project leaflet (and e-leaflet) presenting the project’s results

1st leaflet

An introductory project leaflet (and e-leaflet)

Process simulator application

Report on the use of the final process simulator for the perspectives analysis of the RED HtP technology

Dissemination and exploitation plan

Updated (or confirmed) plan for ‘dissemination and exploitation’

Comparative performance analysis

Report comparing the two process options with final indication of the one selected for task 4.4

Advanced process simulator

Report on the development and validation of the advanced process simulator for simulation and design of the RED HtP lab-prototype

Design guidelines

Guidelines for project communication including a project logo, word and power point templates

Adsorption/desorption heat pumps impact

Report on the performance enhancement potential by a adsorption/desorption heat pumps

Pre-selection report

A report explaining the pre-selection decisions and the activities to be performed in the lab for WP3, WP4 and WP5

Very low temperature regeneration preliminary assessment

Report on the state of the art analysis and outcomes of the preliminary assessment of potentials of novel very low-T regeneration options, along with the list of options to be tested in tasks 4.2 and 4.3

Economic evaluation report

A report presenting the economic analysis for various applications of the system and highlighting the areas where the cost reduction efforts should focus

Report on environmental, social and other potential issues

A report analysing the potential issues, recommending strategies to minimise their impact and providing input to the system design


A targeted and quantified development roadmap

Basic modelling tool

Report on the development of the basic modelling tool for the selection and design of the 1st integrated systems

Report on the perspectives of the technology

A report summarising the results of the heat sources study and the analysis of the framework conditions, providing recommendations for the heat sources and countries that should be targeted first during the commercialisations phase

Communication and promotion activities

A report on the communication and promotion activities summarising all media presence, participation to events and social media achievements


Performance of a RED system with ammonium hydrogen carbonate solutions

Author(s): M. Bevacqua, A. Carubia, A. Cipollina, A. Tamburini, M. Tedesco, G. Micale
Published in: Desalination and Water Treatment, Issue 57/48-49, 2016, Page(s) 23007-23018, ISSN 1944-3994
DOI: 10.1080/19443994.2015.1126410

On some issues in the computational modelling of spacer-filled channels for membrane distillation

Author(s): Mariagiorgia La Cerva, Michele Ciofalo, Luigi Gurreri, Alessandro Tamburini, Andrea Cipollina, Giorgio Micale
Published in: Desalination, Issue 411, 2017, Page(s) 101-111, ISSN 0011-9164
DOI: 10.1016/j.desal.2017.02.016

Multi-physical modelling of reverse electrodialysis

Author(s): L. Gurreri, G. Battaglia, A. Tamburini, A. Cipollina, G. Micale, M. Ciofalo
Published in: Desalination, Issue 423, 2017, Page(s) 52-64, ISSN 0011-9164
DOI: 10.1016/j.desal.2017.09.006

Assessment of methodologies and data used to calculate desalination costs

Author(s): Michael Papapetrou, Andrea Cipollina, Umberto La Commare, Giorgio Micale, Guillermo Zaragoza, George Kosmadakis
Published in: Desalination, Issue 419, 2017, Page(s) 8-19, ISSN 0011-9164
DOI: 10.1016/j.desal.2017.05.038

Reverse electrodialysis with NH 4 HCO 3 -water systems for heat-to-power conversion

Author(s): M. Bevacqua, A. Tamburini, M. Papapetrou, A. Cipollina, G. Micale, A. Piacentino
Published in: Energy, Issue 137, 2017, Page(s) 1293-1307, ISSN 0360-5442
DOI: 10.1016/

Industrial waste heat: Estimation of the technically available resource in the EU per industrial sector, temperature level and country

Author(s): Michael Papapetrou, George Kosmadakis, Andrea Cipollina, Umberto La Commare, Giorgio Micale
Published in: Applied Thermal Engineering, Issue 138, 2018, Page(s) 207-216, ISSN 1359-4311
DOI: 10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2018.04.043

Coupling CFD with a one-dimensional model to predict the performance of reverse electrodialysis stacks

Author(s): M. La Cerva, M. Di Liberto, L. Gurreri, A. Tamburini, A. Cipollina, G. Micale, M. Ciofalo
Published in: Journal of Membrane Science, Issue 541, 2017, Page(s) 595-610, ISSN 0376-7388
DOI: 10.1016/j.memsci.2017.07.030

Reverse electrodialysis heat engine for sustainable power production

Author(s): A. Tamburini, M. Tedesco, A. Cipollina, G. Micale, M. Ciofalo, M. Papapetrou, W. Van Baak, A. Piacentino
Published in: Applied Energy, Issue 206, 2017, Page(s) 1334-1353, ISSN 0306-2619
DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.10.008

Effect of different aqueous solutions of pure salts and salt mixtures in reverse electrodialysis systems for closed-loop applications

Author(s): M. Micari, M. Bevacqua, A. Cipollina, A. Tamburini, W. Van Baak, T. Putts, G. Micale
Published in: Journal of Membrane Science, Issue 551, 2018, Page(s) 315-325, ISSN 0376-7388
DOI: 10.1016/j.memsci.2018.01.036

Electrical power production from low-grade waste heat using a thermally regenerative ethylenediamine battery

Author(s): Mohammad Rahimi, Adriana D'Angelo, Christopher A. Gorski, Onofrio Scialdone, Bruce E. Logan
Published in: Journal of Power Sources, Issue 351, 2017, Page(s) 45-50, ISSN 0378-7753
DOI: 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2017.03.074

“Breakthrough” osmosis and unusually high power densities in Pressure-Retarded Osmosis in non-ideally semi-permeable supported membranes

Author(s): Andriy Yaroshchuk
Published in: Scientific Reports, Issue 7/1, 2017, ISSN 2045-2322
DOI: 10.1038/srep45168

Experimental and computational investigation of heat transfer in channels filled by woven spacers

Author(s): Francesco Nicolò Ponzio, Alessandro Tamburini, Andrea Cipollina, Giorgio Micale, Michele Ciofalo
Published in: International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Issue 104, 2017, Page(s) 163-177, ISSN 0017-9310
DOI: 10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2016.08.023

Exergy analysis of reverse electrodialysis

Author(s): F. Giacalone, P. Catrini, A. Tamburini, A. Cipollina, A. Piacentino, G. Micale
Published in: Energy Conversion and Management, Issue 164, 2018, Page(s) 588-602, ISSN 0196-8904
DOI: 10.1016/j.enconman.2018.03.014

Performance Analysis of a RED-MED Salinity Gradient Heat Engine

Author(s): Patricia Palenzuela, Marina Micari, Bartolomé Ortega-Delgado, Francesco Giacalone, Guillermo Zaragoza, Diego-César Alarcón-Padilla, Andrea Cipollina, Alessandro Tamburini, Giorgio Micale
Published in: Energies, Issue 11/12, 2018, Page(s) 3385, ISSN 1996-1073
DOI: 10.3390/en11123385

On the regeneration of thermally regenerative ammonia batteries

Author(s): Fabrizio Vicari, Adriana D’Angelo, Yohan Kouko, Alessandro Loffredi, Alessandro Galia, Onofrio Scialdone
Published in: Journal of Applied Electrochemistry, Issue 48/12, 2018, Page(s) 1381-1388, ISSN 0021-891X
DOI: 10.1007/s10800-018-1240-0

Correlations for estimating the specific capital cost of multi-effect distillation plants considering the main design trends and operating conditions

Author(s): George Kosmadakis, Michael Papapetrou, Bartolomé Ortega-Delgado, Andrea Cipollina, Diego-César Alarcón-Padilla
Published in: Desalination, Issue 447, 2018, Page(s) 74-83, ISSN 0011-9164
DOI: 10.1016/j.desal.2018.09.011

An Adsorption Reverse Electrodialysis system for the generation of electricity from low-grade heat

Author(s): C. Olkis, G. Santori, S. Brandani
Published in: Applied Energy, Issue 231, 2018, Page(s) 222-234, ISSN 0306-2619
DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.09.112

Inorganic Pseudo Ion Exchange Membranes—Concepts and Preliminary Experiments

Author(s): Joost Veerman, Damnearn Kunteng
Published in: Applied Sciences, Issue 8/11, 2018, Page(s) 2142, ISSN 2076-3417
DOI: 10.3390/app8112142

Towards the first proof of the concept of a Reverse ElectroDialysis - Membrane Distillation Heat Engine

Author(s): M. Micari, A. Cipollina, F. Giacalone, G. Kosmadakis, M. Papapetrou, G. Zaragoza, G. Micale, A. Tamburini
Published in: Desalination, Issue 453, 2019, Page(s) 77-88, ISSN 0011-9164
DOI: 10.1016/j.desal.2018.11.022

Novel solutions for closed-loop reverse electrodialysis: Thermodynamic characterisation and perspective analysis

Author(s): F. Giacalone, C. Olkis, G. Santori, A. Cipollina, S. Brandani, G. Micale
Published in: Energy, Issue 166, 2019, Page(s) 674-689, ISSN 0360-5442
DOI: 10.1016/

Thermolytic reverse electrodialysis heat engine: model development, integration and performance analysis

Author(s): F. Giacalone, F. Vassallo, L. Griffin, M.C. Ferrari, G. Micale, F. Scargiali, A. Tamburini, A. Cipollina
Published in: Energy Conversion and Management, Issue 189, 2019, Page(s) 1-13, ISSN 0196-8904
DOI: 10.1016/j.enconman.2019.03.045

Evaluation of the Economic and Environmental Performance of Low-Temperature Heat to Power Conversion using a Reverse Electrodialysis – Multi-Effect Distillation System

Author(s): Michael Papapetrou, George Kosmadakis, Francesco Giacalone, Bartolomé Ortega-Delgado, Andrea Cipollina, Alessandro Tamburini, Giorgio Micale
Published in: Energies, Issue 12/17, 2019, Page(s) 3206, ISSN 1996-1073
DOI: 10.3390/en12173206

Membrane Deformation and Its Effects on Flow and Mass Transfer in the Electromembrane Processes

Author(s): Battaglia, Gurreri, Farulla, Cipollina, Pirrotta, Micale, Ciofalo
Published in: International Journal of Molecular Sciences, Issue 20/8, 2019, Page(s) 1840, ISSN 1422-0067
DOI: 10.3390/ijms20081840

A small-scale adsorption desalinator

Author(s): C. Olkis, S. Brandani, G. Santori
Published in: Energy Procedia, Issue 158, 2019, Page(s) 1425-1430, ISSN 1876-6102
DOI: 10.1016/j.egypro.2019.01.345

Reverse electrodialysis heat engine with multi-effect distillation: Exergy analysis and perspectives

Author(s): B. Ortega-Delgado, F. Giacalone, P. Catrini, A. Cipollina, A. Piacentino, A. Tamburini, G. Micale
Published in: Energy Conversion and Management, Issue 194, 2019, Page(s) 140-159, ISSN 0196-8904
DOI: 10.1016/j.enconman.2019.04.056

Reverse electrodialysis heat-engine: Case studies of improving energy efficiency through recovery of low temperature excess heat

Author(s): M. Papapetrou and G. Kosmadakis
Published in: ECEEE INDUSTRIAL SUMMER STUDY PROCEEDINGS, 2018, Page(s) 423-430