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Reporting period: 2015-01-01 to 2016-03-31

The main objectives of the project, as reported in section 1.1 of the DoA, are:
• A preliminary operational validation of the UoB Prototype;
• The industrial design of a final Product;
• The development of a Demonstrator.
The first objective has been pursued firstly, in the context of WP1, by means of a theoretical feasibility study on Galileo-based radar, analysing the power budget, i.e. the detectability of maritime targets against noise or sea clutter.
The second objective, i.e. the Industrial Design of a final Product, is being pursuing by following the Systems Engineering approach, led by Aster to support the various engineering activities, beginning in the conceptual design phase and continuing throughout development and later life-cycle phases.As for the third objective, the Development of a Demonstrator, it has been started the development of the spyGLASS receiver, as well as the subsystems that will provide the ground truth information to validate the processing results and integrated surveillance vehicle that will host the spyGLASS receiver.
Work Package 1 – Preliminary Validation
For confirming the feasibility of the spyGLASS radar scheme, the first focus of WP1 has been the Power Budget Estimation for spyGLASS Radar (WP1.1). The primary objective in this work is to define the power budget, represented by the available Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR), of the spyGLASS radar as part of its feasibility study. The goal of this study is to get preliminary system performance measures on target detectability in the background of receiver noise, and through that to identify some of the key parameters in the system design.
Work package 2 – Passive GNSS based M-MTI Mode
The primary objective of WP 2 is related to the study, development and testing of processing techniques for maritime moving target detection and localization by means of PBR (Passive Bistatic Radar) techniques exploiting GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) as opportunity transmitters. The WP, aimed at defining the required enabling methodologies able to provide the Maritime-MTI (Moving Target Indication) capabilities, is organized in three main tasks, namely WP2.1 “Single-channel Techniques Study and Development”, WP2.2 “Multi-channel Techniques Study and Development” and WP2.3 “M-MTI Techniques Testing”.
Work package 3 – System Requirements and Design
Following the results of WP1 and applying the Systems Engineering approach, ASTER lead this WP with the aim to provide the specification the spyGLASS system shall fulfil in order to satisfy users expectations and to design the spyGLASS demonstrator that will be used to validate the system usefulness in a significant environment.
The spyGLASS project was born with the ambition to have a certain number of impacts, mainly in the following directions:
• Increasing the variety of possible uses of Galileo;
• Validation of the effective operation in the field of maritime surveillance;
• Product commercialisation towards potential identified users.
Let's see how where we are with these three goals, after 15 months of project.
1. Use of Galileo
Galileo global navigation satellite system aims at joining and combining the existing GPS and GLONASS systems in order to provide more accuracy and a greater geographical coverage.
Many applications have been already envisaged for Galileo and many more will be as soon as the constellation will be fully deployed (expected date by 2020).
The use of Galileo as opportunity transmitter for a passive bistatic radar is one of the newest and most original applications, one of the most fruitful for many reasons:
• Planetary coverage;
• Multiple transmitters always available;
• Inexpensive to receive;
• Simple to synchronize.
At this stage of the project the Galileo constellation has not been completed yet and the spyGLASS prototype is not yet operational (according to spyGLASS program, the prototype will be operational only in the second half of the project). Nevertheless, on the basis of the first experiments carried out by using the breadboard receiver of the University of Birmingham, whose data were analysed and processed by the algorithms developed by the University of Rome, we can state, without any doubt, that the use of Galileo as opportunity transmitter for passive bistatic radar application is absolutely meaningful and convenient and that surely it will come into common use in the next future.
2. Maritime Validation
As mentioned in the previous point, the first measurements have been performed by using GNSS transmissions received by the breadboard receiver set up by the University of Birmingham. Trials have been executed by receiving the signals reflected from targets both co-operative and occasional. The received signals, converted into digital format, have been subsequently transferred to the University of Rome where they have been processed by means of original algorithms in order to detect and locate the target.
The main problem of a passive bistatic radar exploiting transmissions coming from GNSS satellites is the extremely low strength of the received signal and the capability to extract it from the noise. In the sea this is made more difficult by clutter.
The first results are encouraging, but of course we have to wait to make the tests with the final prototype, which will be equipped with a much better performance receiver.
3. Product Commercialisation
Potential users have been identified: Coast Guard, Tributary Police, Border Guard and Navy at the moment. Obviously, the most promising approaches towards the stakeholders are postponed after the prototype will be fully validated and there will be tangible results to be shown.
This specific impact will be extensively covered in the Final Report.