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How do humans recognise kin?

Periodic Reporting for period 3 - KINSHIP (How do humans recognise kin?)

Reporting period: 2018-10-01 to 2020-03-31

Kinship moderates important social outcomes, such as interpersonal violence and sexual behaviour, but how do you know who your kin are? On the surface, this appears to be a simple question, but we understand little about how humans determine who feels like family. Genetic relatedness is, in fact, only a small part of what influences our behaviour, and indirect cues such as who you've lived with and when, what you look and smell like, and what words you use to describe your relationship have profound effects on behaviour.

This project combines biological theories regarding the essential role of kinship in regulating social and sexual behaviour with advanced methods from experimental psychology, genetics, acoustics, computer graphics and experimental economics, to develop and test the first comprehensive model of human kin recognition. While the importance of this project is mainly to increase our basic understanding of human kinship perception, this information on how and why family relatedness increases proscoial behaviour and decreases sexual attractiveness will provide a scientific underpinning for applied research on situations where this is not the case, such as family violence and incest.

Our project has two main objectives. First, we will build a model of human kin recognition that will help us to test ideas about the evolution of kin recognition and how kinship cues influence our behaviour towards others. Second, we will produce a computer model of how family resemblance is expressed in the face, which will be used to develop novel methods for assessing family resemblance from face images and experimentally creating realistic and biologically plausible “virtual relatives” using computer graphics.
"The project is currently at the planned stage of intensive data collection. We have collected data on 2075 participants for the family resemblance model (Family Resemblance Work Package), as well as data on 75 pairs of related and unrelated individuals for the human kin recognition model (Laboratory Work Package).

We have also produced eleven papers, one book chapter, one popularised publication, six invited conference talks, and ten conference posters, listed below.

Publications resulting from the grant:

* Wolffhechel K, Hahn AC, Jarmer H, Fisher CI, Jones BC, et al. (2015) Testing the Utility of a Data-Driven Approach for Assessing BMI from Face Images. PLOS ONE 10(10): e0140347. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0140347

* Dal Martello, MF, DeBruine, LM & Maloney, LT (2015). Allocentric kin recognition is not affected by facial inversion. Journal of Vision, 15(13): 5. doi: 10.1167/15.13.5

* DeBruine, LM, Hahn, AC & Jones, BC (2016). Perceiving infant faces. Current Opinion in Psychology, 7: 87-91. doi: 10.1016/j.copsyc.2015.08.010

* DeBruine, LM, Jones, BC & Little, AC (2017). Positive sexual imprinting for human eye color. BioRxiv (preprint). doi: 10.1101/135244

* Holzleitner, IJ, Hahn, AC, Fisher, C, Lee, AJ, O'Shea, KJ, Jones, BC & DeBruine, LM (2017). Hormonal regulation of women′s prosocial, but not sexual, responses to kinship cues. BioRχiv (preprint). doi: 10.1101/192054

* Jones, BC, Hahn, AC, Fisher, CI, Wang, H, Kandrik, M, Lao, J, Han, C, Lee, AJ, Holzleitner, IJ & DeBruine, LM (2018). No compelling evidence that more physically attractive young adult women have higher estradiol or progesterone. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 98, 1-5. doi: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2018.07.026

* Jones, BC, DeBruine, LM, Flake, JK, Aczel, B, Adamkovic, M, Alaei, R, … Chartier, CR (2018). Social perception of faces around the world: How well does the valence-dominance model generalize across world regions? (Registered Report Stage 1). PsyArXiv (preprint). doi: 10.31234/osf.io/n26dy

* Jones, BC, Hahn, AC, Fisher, CI, Wang, H, Kandrik, M, Lee, AJ, Tybur, J & DeBruine, LM (2018). Hormonal correlates of pathogen disgust: testing the compensatory prophylaxis hypothesis. Evolution and Human Behavior, 39(2), 166-169. doi: 10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2017.12.004

* Lakens, D, Adolfi, FG, Albers, CJ, Anvari, F, Apps, MAJ, Argamon, SE, ... Zwaan, RA (2018). Justify your alpha. Nature Human Behaviour, 2(3), 168-171. doi: 10.1038/s41562-018-0311-x

* Torrance, JS, Kandrik, M, Lee, AJ, DeBruine, LM & Jones, BC (2018). Does Adult Sex Ratio Predict Regional Variation in Facial Dominance Perceptions? Evidence From an Analysis of U.S. States. Evolutionary Psychology, 16(2), 1-5. doi: 10.1177/1474704918776748

* DeBruine, LM (in press). Phenotypic resemblance and kinship detection. In: Shackelford TK, Weekes-Shackelford VA (eds) Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science. Springer, Cham.


Publications under review:

* Holzleitner, IJ, Hahn, AC, Fisher, C, Lee, AJ, O'Shea, KJ, Jones, BC & DeBruine, LM (under review). Hormonal regulation of women′s prosocial, but not sexual, responses to kinship cues. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

* DeBruine, LM, Holzleitner, IJ (invited paper). The relationship between kinship cues and kin-biased behaviour. Current Directions in Psychological Science.


Popularised publications:

* DeBruine, LM & Jack, R (2016). Making sense of making faces. Science Scotland. http://www.sciencescotland.org/downloads/science_scotland_26.pdf


Invited conference talks resulting from the grant:

2016

* Holzleitner, IJ, Hahn, AC, Fisher, C, Lee, AJ, Jones, BC & DeBruine, LM (2016). Hormone levels predict women’s response to self-resembling faces. Human Behavior and Evolution Society (HBES) in Vancouver, BC, Canada. June 2016.

2017

* DeBruine, LM, Turner, E, Gordon, R & Jones, BC (2017). Evidence for specialized processing of facial kinship cues in ""Signals in Evolutionary and Ecological Context"" (Invited Podium Symposium). American Association of Physical Anthropologists (AAPA) in New Orleans, LA, USA. April 2017.

* DeBruine, LM, Fasolt, V, Markova, N, Holzleitner, IJ, Lee, AJ, Jones, BC & O'Shea, KJ (2017). Perceived resemblance is affected by both actual and perceived kinship. Human Behavior and Evolution Society (HBES) in Boise, Idaho, USA. May 2017.

* Fasolt, V, Holzleitner, IJ, Lee, AJ, O'Shea, K, Jones, BC & DeBruine, LM (2017). The Effect of Methodology in Third-Party Kin Recognition Research. Human Behavior and Evolution Society (HBES) in Boise, Idaho, USA. May 2017.

* Holzleitner, IJ, Lee, AJ, Fasolt, V, O'Shea, KJ, Jones, BC & DeBruine, LM (2017). Testing the facial homogamy hypothesis in a 3D sample of UK romantic partners. Human Behavior and Evolution Society (HBES) in Boise, Idaho, USA. May 2017.

2018

* DeBruine, LM (2018). How to avoid incest. British Psychological Society (BPS) undergraduate conference in Glasgow, Scotland, UK. March 2018.


Conference Posters:

2016

* Lee, AJ, Hahn, AC, Fisher, CI, Holzleitner, IJ, Jones, BC & DeBruine, LM (2016) Pathogen disgust sensitivity is associated with women’s 3rd party incest aversion, but not attractiveness of self-resembling male faces. Human Behavior and Evolution Society (HBES) in Vancouver, BC, Canada. June 2016.

2017

* Fasolt, V, Holzleitner, IJ, Lee, AJ, O’Shea, KJ, Jones, BC & DeBruine, LM (2017) Facial expression and 3rd-party kin recognition. European Human Behavior and Evolution Association (EHBEA) in Paris, France. April 2017.

* O’Shea, KJ, Holzleitner, IJ, Fasolt, V, Lee, AJ, Jones, BC & DeBruine, LM (2017). Do kinship cues influence prosocial behaviour in the ultimatum game? Human Behavior and Evolution Society (HBES), in Boise, ID, USA. May 2017.

* Fasolt, V, Holzleitner, IJ, Lee, AJ, O’Shea, KJ, Jones, BC & DeBruine, LM (2017) Third-party kin recognition. 6th Summer Institute of the International Society for Human Ethology (ISHE), in Boise, ID, USA. June 2017.

2018

* Cassar, R & DeBruine LM (2018) Human sexual imprinting. European Human Behaviour and Evolution Association (EHBEA) in Pécs, Hungary. April 2018.

* Fasolt V, Holzleitner IJ, Lee AJ, O'Shea KJ, Jones BC & DeBruine, LM (2018). Children resemble women more than men, regardless of kinship status. European Human Behaviour and Evolution Association (EHBEA) in Pécs, Hungary. April 2018. (WON POSTER PRIZE)

* Holzleitner IJ, O'Shea KJ, Fasolt V, Jones BC & DeBruine, LM (2018). Which 3D shape cues drive perceptions of facial similarity? European Human Behaviour and Evolution Association (EHBEA) in Pécs, Hungary. April 2018.

* Leigh, V, Jones, BC & DeBruine, LM (2018). Bisexual women show positive sexual imprinting on the partner-sex parent for eye colour. European Human Behaviour and Evolution Association in Pécs, Hungary. April 2018.

* O’Shea, KJ, Holzleitner, IJ & DeBruine, LM (2018). Correlating Disgust and Incest Avoidance. European Human Behaviour and Evolution Association (EHBEA) in Pécs, Hungary. April 2018.

* Querci, T, Holzleitner, IJ, & DeBruine, LM (2018). 2D-3D Kin recognition in human faces. European Human Behaviour and Evolution Association (EBHEA), in Pécs, Hungary. April 2018.

"
The project has achieved a high level of public engagement. Our 3D image collection has been featured at the Glasgow Science Centre on several occasions for public science events. We have also demonstrated our research technology at three invited events with substantial outreach, i.e. Science Lates (Glasgow Science Centre), the ESRC Festival of Social Science and the European Researchers’ Night. We have also spoken about family resemblance and demonstrated techniques for measuring and manipulating family resemblance on several TV documentaries, listed below.

Your Face Says it All (2016) Channel 4, UK
https://youtu.be/5D8JkBjvTok
Dr DeBruine spoke on face perception generally and facial resemblance among kin.

Finding My Twin Stranger (2016) Channel 4, UK
http://www.imdb.com/title/tt6315032/
We assessed facial resemblance between doppelgängers using 2D and 3D image assessments developed for the KINSHIP project. Dr Holzleitner was featured in the documentary running the 3D camera, while Dr DeBruine was featured in the documentary explaining the science behind facial similarity metrics to the participants.

Cousins: A Wedding In The Family (in production) BBC3, UK
http://www.roelanddoust.com/films/
We created self-resembling and father-resembling images for the subject of the documentary, an 18-year-old trying to decide whether or not to pursue a cousin marriage. Dr DeBruine also spoke to her about the research on mate choice and family resemblance.

In addition, we are maintaining two social media accounts (Facebook, Twitter) and a website. Our Twitter account (@kinfaces) has reached up to 8,000 impressions a month (number of times users saw one of our tweets). Our website, which allows previous participants to access their 3D images and also provides info on the KINSHIP project and our research, as well as several online demos, has had approximately 40,400 unique visitors since the start of the grant.

In summary, we estimate that our dissemination and communication activities have reached more than 20,000 members of the general public; the viewing numbers for the three TV documentaries are not possible to estimate at this time.
kinship-example3dface.jpeg