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Developing the next generation Macro-Algae based biofuels for transportation via advanced bio-refinery processes

Deliverables

Stakeholder engagement events and results’ evaluation reports 2

The report 2 on stakeholders mangement will include results from: 1) The Mid-Term MacroFuels Conference (M30) dealing with the first relevant results; 2) Final MacroFuels Conference (M48) with project results to industrial stakeholders (targeted session), LCA results to industries, policy makers (targeted session), organise a special format for citizens, incl. a presentation of the social impact assessment results, 3) Focus Group meetings (M24-36): with policy makers, representatives of CSOs, citizens and/or other relevant actors. Citizen Panel (M12, M24) with residents from MacroFuels cultivation target areas.

Environmental assessment of the MacroFuels concept

A report on the environmental assessment of transportation fuel production from seaweed will be made by Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) with focus on GHG emissions including the contribution made by land use change, resource use, photochemical ozone formation, acidification, and eutrophication.

Sustainability assessment of the MacroFuels concept

The report on the sustainability assessment will be based on clearly-articulated scenarios and will consider the full life cycle of the transportation fuels. The scenarios for the seaweed-derived fuels will be based on the production processes forming part of the other Work Packages, and will consider the different options for producing seaweed-derived transport fuels, reflecting the possible implementation.

Seaweed derived fuels from thermochemical conversion

Evaluate the performance of thermochemically derived furanics as diesel fuel and additive, with commercial grade diesel as the reference. Analyses will include lubricity, cetane number/cetane index, miscibility, corrosivity, health and safety hazards. Engine tests on a compression-ignited engine will include NOX and particulates formation. Cylinder pressure measurements will reveal combustion characteristics such as ignition delay, rate of heat release and cylinder pressure oscillations related to diesel engine knocking.

Environmental risk assessment of the MacroFuels concept

The environmental risk assessment will – in co-operation with WP1 - address and assess the direct environmental impacts and risks that large-scale seaweed cultivation may pose at the levels of the physical/chemical environment (eutrophication, oxygen conditions), as well as at biological levels (biodiversity: e.g. effects on natural seaweed populations [shading, diseases, genetics], effects on higher trophic levels: fish, birds and mammals).

Stakeholder engagement events and results’ evaluation report1

The evaluation report will be based on the inter-project meetings for knowledge exchange, the set up and activities of the focus group of national and EU experts and the Citizen Panel.

Seaweed derived biofuels and blend derived from fermentation

A report with evaluation of the performance ABE and blends as gasoline substitute, with commercial grade gasoline as the reference. Analyses will include octane number, ignitability limits, flame speed, flash point, volumetric energy content and solubility limits. Engine tests on a spark-ignited engine include transient emissions measurements (FTIR) to examine the exhaust gas composition for both regulated and non-regulated emissions, including aldehydes, methane, ethanol and various other hydrocarbons.

Knowledge and data repository provided to Energy Research Knowledge Centre (ERKC), Intelligent Energy Europe (IEE) and relevant European platforms, incl. standards, norms, certifications and regulations relevant for MacroFuels

MacroFuels will generate, preserve and share data in all project areas (algae cultivation, treatment, storage, fuel production, sustainability and impact assessment). Knowledge and data will be available via a project repository via the project website (except the knowledge and data covered by IPR). MacroFuels will proactively provide knowledge and data to EU platforms such as the ERKC, IEE, ETP Biofuels, JPIs, MarineKIC, EATIP, KIC InnoEnergy etc.). A first contact targeted on knowledge and data sharing will be made in M12. Formats will be reports, strategy papers, databases, publications etc. Direct knowledge exchange will be sought after during MacroFuels conferences and via direct communication.

Policy brief and strategy papers with recommendations for policy making 2

The strategy paper for national and EU level policy making based on techno-economic, environmental and social assessment results will be designed and provided to policy makers on national and EU level.

Policy briefs and strategy papers with recommendations for policy making 1

A first strategy paper (M30) will be set up and provided to policy makers in MacroFuels target areas on policy-relevant topics, such as growth and employment opportunities and requirements for future skills development in the field of biofuels, political and legal conditions for a thriving biofuels sector etc.

Project online presence

An informative project website will be provided, highlighting the project objectives, main activities, target areas, target applications and consortium members. In M6 after project start, an advanced interactive website will replace the informative website, allowing for communication, interactive blogs, and serving as repository for MacroFuels dissemination material. The advanced website will contain subsections for defined target groups, such as scientists, industries, citizens and policy makers and the possibility to sign up for a regular project newsletter.

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Publications

First year results of growing seaweed in an exposed location at Grenaa, Denmark

Author(s): Teis Boderskov, Annette Bruhn, Michael Bo Rasmussen
Published in: 2017
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.3727636

Production of fuels and chemicals from Macroalgae

Author(s): Ana Lopez-Contreras, V. Mastihuba
Published in: BioTech2017 and 7th Czech-Swiss Symposium with Exhibition - Book of Abstracts, 2017, Page(s) 46-47

Driving on sunshine, converting seaweed to furanic biofuels

Author(s): J.W. van Hal
Published in: Issue 1, 2017
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.851514

Carbohydrates and furans from seaweeds for fuels and chemicals

Author(s): W.J.J. Huijgen
Published in: Issue 1, 2017
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.851516

Carbohydrate Analysis of Seaweed in the Biorefinery to Chemicals and Fuel Context

Author(s): J.W. van Hal; A.-B. Bjerre; Ana M. López-Contreras; Michele Stanley; G.O. Hreggvidsson; W.J.J. Huijgen
Published in: Issue 1, 2016
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.851380

MacroFuels

Author(s): J.W. van Hal; A.-B. Bjerre
Published in: Issue 1, 2016
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.851510

L-Rhamnose Metabolism in Clostridium beijerinckii Strain DSM 6423

Author(s): Mamou Diallo, Andre D. Simons, Hetty van der Wal, Florent Collas, Bwee Houweling-Tan, Servé W. M. Kengen, Ana M. López-Contreras
Published in: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Issue 85/5, 2019, ISSN 0099-2240
DOI: 10.1128/AEM.02656-18

The Environmental Risks Associated With the Development of Seaweed Farming in Europe - Prioritizing Key Knowledge Gaps

Author(s): Iona Campbell, Adrian Macleod, Christian Sahlmann, Luiza Neves, Jon Funderud, Margareth Øverland, Adam D. Hughes, Michele Stanley
Published in: Frontiers in Marine Science, Issue 6, 2019, ISSN 2296-7745
DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2019.00107

Adaptation and application of a two-plasmid inducible CRISPR-Cas9 system in Clostridium beijerinckii

Author(s): Mamou Diallo, Rémi Hocq, Florent Collas, Gwladys Chartier, François Wasels, Hani Surya Wijaya, Marc W.T. Werten, Emil J.H. Wolbert, Servé W.M. Kengen, John van der Oost, Nicolas Lopes Ferreira, Ana M. López-Contreras
Published in: Methods, 2019, ISSN 1046-2023
DOI: 10.1016/j.ymeth.2019.07.022

Fermentation of sugar kelp (Saccharina latissima)—effects on sensory properties, and content of minerals and metals

Author(s): Annette Bruhn, Gunhild Brynning, Aase Johansen, Mads Sarauw Lindegaard, Helle Hagen Sveigaard, Betina Aarup, Lene Fonager, Lene Lykke Andersen, Michael Bo Rasmussen, Martin Mørk Larsen, Dieter Elsser-Gravesen, Margrethe Elise Børsting
Published in: Journal of Applied Phycology, Issue 31/5, 2019, Page(s) 3175-3187, ISSN 0921-8971
DOI: 10.1007/s10811-019-01827-4

A two-plasmid inducible CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing tool for Clostridium acetobutylicum

Author(s): François Wasels, Jennifer Jean-Marie, Florent Collas, Ana M. López-Contreras, Nicolas Lopes Ferreira
Published in: Journal of Microbiological Methods, Issue 140, 2017, Page(s) 5-11, ISSN 0167-7012
DOI: 10.1016/j.mimet.2017.06.010

Butanol fermentation of the brown seaweed Laminaria digitata by Clostridium beijerinckii DSM-6422

Author(s): Xiaoru Hou, Nikolaj From, Irini Angelidaki, Wouter J.J. Huijgen, Anne-Belinda Bjerre
Published in: Bioresource Technology, Issue 238, 2017, Page(s) 16-21, ISSN 0960-8524
DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2017.04.035

Can Seaweed Farming Play a Role in Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation?

Author(s): Carlos M. Duarte, Jiaping Wu, Xi Xiao, Annette Bruhn, Dorte Krause-Jensen
Published in: Frontiers in Marine Science, Issue 4, 2017, ISSN 2296-7745
DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2017.00100

Valuable Biomolecules from Nine North Atlantic Red Macroalgae: Amino Acids, Fatty Acids, Carotenoids, Minerals and Metals

Author(s): Behnaz Razi Parjikolaei, Annette Bruhn, Karin Loft Eybye, Martin Mørk Larsen, Michael Bo Rasmussen, Knud Villy Christensen, Xavier C. Fretté
Published in: Natural Resources, Issue 07/04, 2016, Page(s) 157-183, ISSN 2158-706X
DOI: 10.4236/nr.2016.74016

Crude fucoidan content in two North Atlantic kelp species, Saccharina latissima and Laminaria digitata—seasonal variation and impact of environmental factors

Author(s): Annette Bruhn, Tina Janicek, Dirk Manns, Mette Møller Nielsen, Thorsten Johannes Skovbjerg Balsby, Anne S. Meyer, Michael Bo Rasmussen, Xiaoru Hou, Bodo Saake, Cordula Göke, Anne Belinda Bjerre
Published in: Journal of Applied Phycology, 2017, ISSN 0921-8971
DOI: 10.1007/s10811-017-1204-5

Biorefinery Approach to the use of Macroalgae as feedstock for biofuels