Periodic Reporting for period 1 - UVMWREACT (Design, fabrication and optimization of a novel integrated UV-microwave assisted catalytic reactor for the continuous flow treatment of wastewater) Reporting period: 2015-09-01 to 2017-08-31 Summary of the context and overall objectives of the project We developed an environmentally-friendly, totally innovative method for the treatment of toxic and recalcitrant contaminants in wastewater by enhancing the rate of a novel heterogeneous catalytic treatment process using microwave energy and ultraviolet radiation. It provides a solution to the as yet unmet challenge of using microwaves to treat large flows by an innovative novel reactor design that is scalable to meet the demands of industry. To this day many wastewater streams containing toxic and recalcitrant pollutants in developed as well as developing countries are treated only by dilution. Individual treatment technologies are not effective in removing these recalcitrant pollutants owing to their toxicity, shock loads, selectivity and slow reaction rates. The effective integration of various treatment technologies, such us advanced oxidation processes, microwave and UV irradiation, is therefore the way forward.In recent years, several reports have demonstrated the use of microwave and ultraviolet radiation to promote the oxidative degradation of bio-refractory wastes due to their advantages of speeding up the reaction, high-efficiency with no pollution to the environment. Nevertheless the use of microwaves in catalysis and in the water and wastewater industry remains at laboratory scale. The major challenges in the water/wastewater industries are centered on the poor penetration depth of microwaves which restricts the dimensions of reactors.The overall objectives of the action were as follows: (i) to develop a principle of scaling of a microwave and UV assisted reactors up to dimensions required in industry and (ii) to build a reactor which proves this principle. In the project, we proposed a principle of scaling, numerically simulated different designs of the reactors based on this principle and built a novel UV and microwave assisted reactor with 3 microwave ports (sections) and variable UV flux. Conclusion of the action: The proposed, designed and developed microwave and UV assisted reactor can be used for treatment of wide range of wastewaters: pharmaceutical, agricultural, wastewater from fracking, etc. Potential scaling-up of the reactor would essentially broaden the number of potential users of this promising wastewater treatment technology. Work performed from the beginning of the project to the end of the period covered by the report and main results achieved so far We measured dielectric permittivity and loss tangent of the catalyst in dry and wet conditions. Measurements showed that the main factor affecting the levels of permittivity and loss tangent was a content of water trapped on the surface of the catalyst. The results of measurements were used for choosing the designs of UV and microwave assisted reactors as well as in numerical simulations of the reactors. We have developed a principle of scaling of microwave and UV assisted reactors, designed and numerically simulated different reactors based on this principle. In collaboration with SAIREM and IMS companies we adapted the chosen reactor design to industry capabilities of manufacturing. Some of technical solutions were simplified without reduction of basic characteristics of the system: effectiveness of microwave heating of wastewater and catalyst, UV light distribution, heat transfer and mixing in fluid streams. We determined appropriate type and frequency band of microwave sources and the type, power and quantity of UV lamps as well as all dimensions of the reactor. Finally we built the system with 3 microwave ports, 3 transmission lines and 3 magnetrons operating at 2.45 GHz (see Fig. 1). The output power of each magnetron could vary from 200 W to 2 kW so that the maximum level of microwave power of the system was 6 kW. The reactor was equipped with 10 UV low pressure lamps emitting the light at 254 nm wavelength. The results of numerical simulations of reactor were reported on Frontiers International Conference on Wastewater Treatment, 21-24 May 2017, Palermo, Italy. The developed reactor is now being tested on treatment of pharmaceutical and agricultural wastewaters; the results of testing as well as the final scalable design of the reactor will be published in peer reviewed journal(s) (presumably in Chemical Engineering Journal). We are expecting that the reactor will be further tested towards the treatment of wide range of pharmaceutical, fracking and produced water from petroleum drilling. Progress beyond the state of the art and expected potential impact (including the socio-economic impact and the wider societal implications of the project so far) The designed and developed reactor system integrating UV and microwave radiations can be very effective in degradation of wide range of recalcitrant pollutants. For instance, in preliminary experiments we found that at least a tenfold increase in the rate of degradation of clotrimazole was achieved with the UV and microwave enhanced treatment system in comparison to the unassisted reaction. The most important result of the project is a principle of scaling of the reactors up to dimensions required by industry. The proposed novel design of the rector is based on layered structure of catalyst which is formed by rotating discs partially immersed in wastewater. Such design, unlike all others reported in the literature, is highly appropriate for scaling by increasing the discs diameter as well as by a quantity of the discs. Microwave and UV radiations can propagate in gaps between the catalyst discs and accordingly deliver UV light and microwave power to inner regions of each disc.Growing population and industrial activities mean that fresh and potable water resources are declining at an alarming rate with the generation of vast amounts of wastewater and subsequent release of contaminants in to water courses. The ever-increasing volume and diversity of pollutants offer a significant challenge to conventional wastewater treatment systems. As a result of increasing environmental awareness and more stringent legislation, most conventional wastewater treatment cannot meet discharge standards, especially those of emerging organic contaminants e.g. pharmaceuticals. In the project, we developed the method of treatment, the reactor design and the principle of scaling of UV and microwave assisted reactors which can be successfully implemented in water and wastewater industry for treatment of streams containing toxic and recalcitrant pollutants. Fig.1. UV-microwave assisted catalytic reactor for the continuous flow wastewater treatment.