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Platform-aware Model-driven Optimization of Cyber-Physical Systems

Periodic Reporting for period 2 - oCPS (Platform-aware Model-driven Optimization of Cyber-Physical Systems)

Reporting period: 2017-11-01 to 2019-10-31

Many modern industrial systems fall in the realm of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) because of the tight interaction between computation, communication and control elements (the cyber part), and physical processes (the physical part) within these systems. Requirements related to cost, quality and reliability enforce designs with over-provisioning of platform resources (computation, communication, memory) by large margins at each phase to be able to fulfil system-level requirements in the worst-case scenarios. To replace such overly conservative design process, there is an urgent need for integrative design trajectories that allow for tradeoffs between cost, quality and reliability coping with the tight coordination between the cyber and the physical components. This gives rise to the need for models that accurately capture the interaction between various components (e.g. software, electronics, mechanics, algorithms, power, energy, etc.) and novel design methods that exploit the artefacts of the underlying platforms.
The key scientific objective of the oCPS program is to enable the design of a new generation of cost-effective, quality-driven and reliable CPS by developing model-driven design methods that capture the interaction between different models at various design layers, that take into account physical constraints and processes, and that introduce platform-awareness at all levels. The program aims to train a generation of young researchers in cross-disciplinary thinking and deliver industrially validated tool chains.
The consortium is composed by nine beneficiaries (Eindhoven University of Technology, Philips Healthcare, Technical University of Munich, Inchron, Fortiss, TU Dortmund, Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, IMSYS and Odys) involving 4 European countries (Netherlands, Germany, Sweden and Italy). Besides that, 11 partners (Technolution, TNO, Scania, Ericsson, Siemens, University of Ulm, IMT Lucca, TU Vienna, Intel Benelux, University of Seville, and University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland) support the consortium with training, secondments, use cases and tool chains.
oCPS counts with a good team of early stage researchers (ESRs) and staffs, and a sound basis for research and innovation in the CPS domains. ESR research is driven by industrial use cases. Solutions are integrated in a number of toolchains. Five industrial drivers use cases have been identified to capture major research challenges to be addressed in oCPS: platooning, the smart car, multi-agent networked systems, high performance imaging, and healthcare equipment. The developed methods are (and are being) validated in a number of toolchains, bringing together multiple relevant tools for a specific application domain.

The following results are achieved by the ESRs in their individual projects:
ESR1: An analysis and tooling framework for design, analysis and simulation for automotive image-based control systems;
ESR2: An event triggered deterministic LQG taking into account computation, communication and power requirements;
ESR3: A supervisory control of timed discrete-event systems with communication delays and non-FIFO observations, and the implementation in CIF3 toolset;
ESR4: An automated approximation methodology for arithmetic circuits and framework for evaluation of impact of approximation on circuits and applications;
ESR5: A software platform for adaptation with evolution of video processing architecture for the Allura interventional X-Ray system from Philips Healthcare;
ESR6: A multi-layer control architecture for vehicle platooning complying with the communication standards for higher safety, fuel and traffic efficiency;
ESR7: Compositional abstractions of networks of stochastic hybrid systems;
ESR8: Architectural guidelines and sufficient conditions for ergodicity of physically coupled networked control systems (NCS) to guarantee efficiency, scalability and flexibility of the network in an NCS.
ESR9: An improved modular performance analysis with real-time calculus combining code-level and model-level level timing analysis for an efficient design trajectory.
ESR10: Correct-by-construction synthesis of control software for physical systems and processes;
ESR11: Partial and heterogeneous models for complex, multi-layered systems considering various use cases;
ESR12: Traffic models for future traffic to control/regulate of speed/behavior of heavy-duty vehicle (HDV) for fuel and road efficiency.
ESR13: Partitioning methods in multi-view modelling have been analysed, aiming to increase CPS design process efficiency through a complexity reduction of the design process.
ESR14: Self-awareness principles for energy efficient, cost constrained internet-of-things devices with a high Quality of Service (QoS) requirements. Models and principles have been partially implemented in chronSIM from INCHRON and RoSA from TU Vienna.
ESR15: To bridge the gap between state-of-the-art model predictive control (MPC) theory and industrial practice for MPC software, a fast MPC algorithm with an embedded implementation has been developed.
The key innovation of oCPS is the development of multidisciplinary, cross-layer model-driven design methods. These are realized in a number of domain-specific and general toolchains. At the end of the project, it is expected to have a set of toolchains for research and industrial use.
The oCPS activities have the following impact: human resource development for next generation CPS design, employability and career opportunities for the ESRs, multi-disciplinary research training at the doctoral level, stronger industry-academia connections, aligned R&D agendas, including training on the job, entrepreneurship and start-ups, and efficient design trajectories, shorter time-to-market.
57 scientific publications have been approved or published so far. 7 videos showing the ESRs research and another for the program as a whole have been created and are accessible here: http://ocps-itn.eu/outreach/videos/