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1D Nanofibre Electro-Optic Networks

Periodic Reporting for period 3 - 1D-Neon (1D Nanofibre Electro-Optic Networks)

Reporting period: 2019-04-01 to 2020-09-30

1D-NEON is an Innovation Action project of the H2020 programme, funded by the European Commission under the NMP-22 2015 call topic.
The vision of 1D-NEON project is to develop fibre-based smart materials along with an integrated technology platform for the manufacturing of multi-sectorial applications in Europe. Those applications include consumer electronics, energy, healthcare, sensors, and smart buildings.

The project aim was to develop a technology platform for new e-fibres/e-textile products development in three major application sectors:
1) Smart lighting and Display with sensors network
2) Smart textile products in automotive & furniture industry
3) Demonstration of scalable manufacturing capability

1D-NEON's technology and manufacturing approach allows to obtain fibre-based electronic, optoelectronic, sensing, energy harvesting and energy storage fibre-based components, and to integrate these components onto complex system architectures using scalable and industrially-viable textile-manufacturing technologies.
All elements mentioned in the summary section have been developed as follows and matured to a readiness level compatible with large-scale industrial manufacturing.

In materials
(1) Stretchable/conductive nano-composites fibre for electrodes application
(2) Semiconducting materials for high mobility channel for fibre-field effect transistor
(3) Cd-free Quantum dot materials for fibre quantum dot LED
(4) Piezoelectric materials for energy harvesting fibre and high capacitive materials for energy storage fibre
(5) Capacitive/resistive physical/chemical sensing fibre material
(6) Conductive and non-conductive adhesive materials for interconnection between functional devices

At the components technology,
(1) high-performance polymer composite materials-based conductive and piezoelectric fibres by co-extrusion of polymer and conductive filler (F-SE, F-Sensor)
(2) Integration of new fibre-based transistor structures for active matrix circuit (F-FET)
(3) Electroluminescent fibres by multi-layered light emitting device structure, consisting of organic, inorganic light emitting materials (F-LED)
(4) Piezoelectric fibres, including demonstration of PVDF, VDF-TrFE polymers, fabricated by coaxial extrusion (F-Energy)
(5) Fibre-based supercapacitors for energy storage (F-Energy)

At the fibre processing and weaving/knitting for system integration
(1) Several approaches to protect F-components have been developed, increasing reliability and yield of industrial-scale textile manufacturing.
(2) Multiple fibre-components were integrated into a single textile by conventional weaving and knitting techniques
(3) A viable strategy to the electrical connection among F-components using welding/soldering/glueing with optical recognition system has been successfully developed and used for demonstration sample preparation.
(4) Adhesive /encapsulation materials were standardised by optimization of interconnection technology.

To build a system production platform,
(1) Integration of multiple fibre-components into smart textiles to obtain active photonic and smart energy textiles has been demonstrated.
(1) A prototype of F-LEDs in large area display system together with F-SE, F-FET, F-Energy, and F-Sensor components.
(2) System integration of F-components by interconnection technology of novel interconnection methods.
(3) Integration of different type of scalable F-Sensors into smart textiles has been achieved.

Modelling and simulation,
(1) Functional materials have been optimised based on multi-scale modelling and simulation work.
(2) Atomistic level of modelling of all materials was categorised and summarised by DFT simulation, followed by scientific publications.
(3) Novel graphical and mathematical tools for stretchable fibres, sensors, and light emitting devices have been developed and the results compared with experimental results, and reported in scientific publications.
(4) The critical parameters have been extracted for use in design and accurate simulation work.
(5) Novel computer-aided design (CAD) tools for fibre-based components, with arbitrary form factor, have been developed and are available to users via the industrial partner Silvaco.

To analyse safety and to build standardization,
(1) Safety: evaluation of materials and processes with direct links to WP1 & WP2 selected compounds and fibre-manufacturing processes.
(2) Standardization: the consortium has actively promoted the development of existing and new standardization committees relevant to the project technologies.
At the level of the materials, progress beyond state of the art included:
• High-performance polymer composite materials.
• Conducting, dielectric and semiconducting materials.
• Multi-layered light emitting device structures.
• Development of physically-based compact models to predict strain-dependent percolation.
• Materials for piezoelectric fibres with higher performances and extrusion of hybrid piezo-polymer structures..

At the component level, progress beyond the state of the art also included:
• Piezo-based F-Stretch and Fibre-Sensor achieved.
• Fibre quantum dot light emitting diodes with stable emission properties.
• Fibre-supercapacitors, stably assembled by weaving.
• Fibre-FET test structures were achieved.

Further innovation work has been developed as follows:

In terms of integration of e-fibre components into e-textiles:
• Integration of fibre-based symmetric generation and storage (F-Energy) on the textile by weaving
• Integration of emissive composite filament for F-LED devices on textile by weaving/knitting
• F-FET on textile by weaving adapting a textile machinery
• F-QLED on textile
• Fibre transistors for driving micro LEDs and active matrix for textile displays.
• Tactile F-sensor in a woven platform for system operation

Progress beyond state of the art in the application domain:
• Industrially-designed prototype of woven textile in a series of multiple LEDs.
• Industrial feasibility analysis to assess the smart energy textile.  
• E-fibre components mentioned above in the sectors of sensor, energy, bio, and lighting were integrated as a single platform.
• Fully Automated-production of lighting textile has been achieved. (Video demonstration at final meeting)

The main achievement enabled by modelling and simulation include:
• Architectures of fibre stretchable electrodes (F-SE) using FEA.
• Analysis of percolation threshold under strain for composite F-SEs.
• Machine-learning assisted device modelling have been developed.
• TCAD and Spice simulations have been merged into one tool.

Dissemination and exploitation:
• At least 3 Thematic Workshops and industry engagement events were organised on e-fibres/e-textiles in Europe, and multiple related events attended in Europe and abroad to meet with the scientific and business communities active in the field worldwide.
• An External Advisory Board composed by industry stakeholders has been organised and maintained throughout the entire project duration.
• A comprehensive kit of over 60 technology, device and integrated system demonstrators were developed and displayed at multiple events, including at review meetings, industry and academic workshops, trade shows and stakeholders' meetings. Video of the main demonstrators have also been realised for sharing with the general public and partners.
Paradigm shift from 2D to 1D new form factor devices towards fibre-based electronics