Periodic Reporting for period 3 - SafeWaterAfrica (Self-Sustaining Cleaning Technology for Safe Water Supply and Management in Rural African Areas)
Reporting period: 2018-12-01 to 2019-11-30
The project represented a consortium of European partners from Germany, Italy and Spain, providing European knowledge on new technologies for water purification. Academic and industrial partners from South Africa and Mozambique completed the project consortium by adding knowledge on additional technologies and system integration.
An integral part of the solution is a new European water treatment technology based on the energy efficient production of strong oxidants, produced electrochemically from the water, called “CabECO”. It does not need additional chemicals for the effective degradation of persistent organic pollutants as well as for killing pathogens."
The design of the electrode modules, the CabECO cells and operation parameter to be used in the prototype and in the Demonstrators were developed. The research highlighted the importance to add pre-treatments to the CabECO cells to guarantee a continuous operation and to reduce the risk of fast aging and fouling of the electrodes. In addition, a modified version of CabECO is integrated in the SafeWaterAfrica system to produce residual disinfectant in the product water by oxidizing inter alia naturally occurring chloride to hypochlorite.
The Remote Monitoring System was developed taking into account the legislation of both South Africa and Mozambique. The system displays all data received from the prototype in an easy to read manner, measures the water quality and assures the effective operation of the installations. Malfunctions of the Demonstrators are detected during operation and measures to secure correct operation in the field tests have been taken.
The design of the prototype took into consideration typical water qualities from different sources on South Africa and Mozambique. The building of the prototype was completed and commissioned on the site of CSIR. The remote operation monitoring system of the prototype was installed. An investigation program to operate the prototype, including all technology modules such as chemical coagulation, flocculation and filtration, the novel pre-treatment technology electrocoagulation and electrochemical disinfection in different process parameter constellations has been performed. The results of these extensive tests were used to design the Demonstrators.
Based on the Demonstrator concept, the final design for the Demonstrator in South Africa has been finished. The design has integrated different process units, including a novel pre-treatment in a pre-disinfection column as well as disinfection with ozone produced with the CabECO technology. The CabECO cells have been tested and calibrated in tap water and reverse osmosis water, with the monitoring, control and operation philosophy. The Demonstrator has been built and installed at the test site near the Klip River. A for the installation in Mozambique led to building of a slightly modified Demonstrator, which also accounts for the less-contaminated raw water of the Incomati River. The Demonstrator at the Klip River was in operation for 14 months, producing water according to WHO and SANS 241 standards. The same is valid for the Demonstrator at the Incomati River, however, because of delays it was in operation for about 6 months. The Demonstrator at Klip River was also used to demonstrate direct reclamation of final wastewater effluent, removing a wide range of micro-pollutants.
To disseminate the results and to identify potential partners for exploitation, the consortium contributed to ten conferences and one industrial fair, published nine scientific peer-reviewed papers, organised eleven workshops and published various press releases, news and videos.
Extensive work has been done on market research and product design for marketable SafeWaterAfrica systems. These activities resulted in cost calculations for the systems and business models for the roll-out of the technology. Business models include the addressing for different market segments as well as different financing models. Different interested parties from public and private sector from the partner countries as well as third countries have been identified. Negotiations with interested parties are ongoing. The Demonstrators will be operated after the end of the project on the basis of project financing.
The SafeWaterAfrica solutions are integrated into undergraduate courses, postgraduate projects, and project developments at the academic partners. For capacity building, students were involved in the installation and operation of prototype and Demonstrators.
The coordinator took all measures to keep the project running well, concerning the progress as well as concerning all legal, financial and reporting aspects. Delays occurred for the installation of the two Demonstrators. However, these delays did not have a significant effect of the results, as the Demonstrators have been operated for up to 14 months.
To minimize the risks to research participants, safety rules from the participating countries were collected. To comply with the ethical standards of H2020, a thorough analysis of documents about ethical aspects in research was performed and the results integrated into the training of the operators of the Demonstrators.
• adaption to local needs and markets,
• involvement into and deep understanding of the solution (no black box!),
• increased acceptance, responsibility and ownership,
• local business and job opportunities.
The system solutions based on SafeWaterAfrica will produce high quality water under controlled conditions. This water will be safe for consumption which is not always the case for decentralized water supplies in the SADC countries. It will thus improve the health situation and promote social well-being.
The impact for the European partners is based on the securing and creation of sustainable jobs, in the broadening of technological knowledge in the field of carbon-based coatings, in intercultural business experience, and in African-European scientific cooperation. The project already led to future cooperation in the field the Water-Energy-Food nexus.