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Defeat of Insider Theft in Nuclear and Radioactive Sites

Periodic Reporting for period 2 - IMPRINT (Defeat of Insider Theft in Nuclear and Radioactive Sites)

Période du rapport: 2016-12-01 au 2017-11-30

"
Insider threats are perhaps the most serious challenges that nuclear security systems face.
All of the cases of theft of nuclear materials where the circumstances of the theft are known were perpetrated either by insiders or with the help of insiders.
The threat of nuclear weapons and components, and ""Dirty bomb"" are major concerns for EU and worldwide nuclear security.
“Dirty bombs” use a radioactive materials encapsulated in a small steel enclosure, surrounded by explosives.
These can be easily detected with Radiation Portal Monitors (RPMs). However, to avoid detection by the RPM’s, terrorist’s insiders might shield the sources.
This gap can be used by the facility insiders to steal nuclear materials from the site.
To be specific there is the need to detect shielded and unshielded Special Nuclear Materials (""SNM"") and radioactive materials.
Radiation Monitors are effective to detect unshielded or partially shielded nuclear and radioactive materials in lightly loaded vehicles or cargos, and are less effective at dense or high attenuating vehicles.
The X-ray cannot clear every dense object found in the image.
Therefore, IMPRINT product shall fill the gap of existing capabilities inspection systems to enable the detection of shielded nuclear or radioactive materials that can be stolen from the sites.
The IMPRINT program is offering a green, passive detection solution designed to meet the global security requirements associated with nuclear and radioactive detection.
The technology is based on high-energy natural atmospheric cosmic ray muon particles, which have the highest known penetration levels on earth and are capable of penetrating and exiting all attenuating cargo and vehicles.

The program achieved the following key objectives:

(1) Complementary solution with existing inspection systems that deploy x-rays and radiation portal monitors.
(2) software algorithms to reconstruct 3D imaging based on muon data and enhanced detection by fusion x-ray and muon data.
(3) Field test and demonstration to introduce the new inspection capabilities.
(4) Exploitation, dissemination and commercialization of the IMPRINT product.
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We developed the specifications under WP2.
WP2 completed as planned and on time [M5].
The specifications defined according technical discussions with all the relevant stakeholders, regulation and standards and after detailed architecture and system work.
The specification defined at detailed levels to enable the design and implementation at WP4.
The detailed specifications are available at deliverable D2.1.
In WP3 we performed the following activities: (1) system level simulation (2) detector simulations and optimization. WP3 completed as planned and on time [M4].
itch of the THGEM electrodes, gas mixture, etc.
The details and outcome of WP3 is summarized at D3.1.
In WP4 we designed and implemented and manufactured all the parts of the system.
All the system parts include :
(1) Detectors unit modifications ( electrodes , enclosure , etc)
(2) analog readout modules , data acquisition , On Board computing , high voltage modules
(3) Software ( Data management , control , trigger , GUI)
(4) 3D reconstruct algorithms using muon data and fusion with x-ray.
WP4 completed as expected and finalized at M13.
In WP5 we integrated the manufactured parts from WP4 into a system level.
The integration completed as planned in M19. The main activity in WP5 was the integration of the detectors.
We developed dedicated process, tools and set ups like automatic tester for the detectors that helped us to make this activity efficient.
We succeed to develop a process that enabled us to operate the detectors without need for ongoing gas flow.
This new process enabled us to eliminate the need for gas system control, gas distribution and the large amounts of gas for ongoing flushing.
Following the completion of the detectors integration we integrated the acquisition system and the signal processing software.
In WP6 we shipped the system and integrated at the external site without too many problems.
The field tests were done according to the specifications in WP2 including dense scenarios to challenge the detection algorithms.
The demonstrator built and included the muon detection system that reconstruct a 3D image of the densities of dense container.
The field tests and demonstrator completed as planned in M23.
In WP7 we analyzed the field test results and following a fine tuning to the algorithm we improved slightly the detection performances.
In summary, the tests results indicates that the system succeed to meet the IMPRINT specifications.
On the dissemination activity side, we attended at the following conferences:
(1) Enterprise innovation (2) SRIE 2016 – Security conference (3) Invest Horizon (4) CAARI (5) UK SECUIRTY EXPO 2018.
The conferences were good exposure for the IMPRINT pm and for the next steps toward commercialization.
We met and discussed with relevant stakeholders that are key for exploiting the project results.
We attended at meetings at the following bodies:
(1) Customs Detection Technology Expert Group (CDTEG) (2) IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency).
Lingacom has selected a coacher with experience in security. The main coaching activities were in marketing and commercialization plans.
On the commercialization activity we succeed to sign an agreement with Rapiscan Systems to market and distribute the IMPRINT product.
Rapiscan systems is one of the largest worldwide inspection company.
The IMPRINT agreement with Rapiscan is the first stage in the commercialization plan for the IMPRINT product.
The strategy is to start the sales of the IMPRINT product with Rapiscan Systems in order to penetrate the market and gain credibility by the end customers.
The second stage will be to expand the distribution channels by adding similar inspection companies like Rapiscan Systems.
The IMPRINT project results are beyond the state of the art.
IMPRINT developed 3D reconstruction algorithm using maximum likelihood approach that is capable to detect shielded nuclear material in dense scenarios settings.
IMPRINT includes also fusion algorithm that based on based both on the muon scattering data and on an X-ray image.
This enhanced detection capability shows a significant ~ 3x improvement in signal over background ratio for the joint X-Ray and muon algorithm over the muon only algorithm.
The new algorithms verified and tested successfully in field trails.
Such capabilities are not available from competitors.
The IMPRINT detectors succeed to be operated without ongoing gas flow and gas system.
This breakthrough still need to be researched after the project.
Today none of the existing gas detector support sealed more operation.
IMPRINT system cost is lower by factor of about 8-10 compared to muon detection as primary system due the following reasons:
(1) Small-area detectors for secondary inspection - the muon system is ~ 4.5 ft (1.5 meters) long fits to all vehicles instead of large muon system covering the whole length of interrogated object of 40 ft (13 meters) up to 60 ft (20 meters)
(2) Use low cost L-THGEM technology that that result in simple detectors and can be produced by the printed-circuit board (PCB) industry.

Such cost structure is not available from competitors.
IMPRINT Brochure
IMPRINT project at SME booth at SRIE 2016 (secuirity conference). David Yaish from Lingacom (Left)
Muon Radiography meetings at IAEA (David Yaish)
CDTEG meetings in Paris (Yossi Kolkovich)
Flyer of IMPRINT at UKsecExpo
IMPRINT project pitch at SRIE 2016 (secuirity conference) by David Yaish from Lingacom
IMPRINT Rollup