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Giantleap Improves Automation of Non-polluting Transportation with Lifetime Extension of Automotive PEM fuel cells

Deliverables

4 months of total student exchange

UFC will organise and support the exchange of PhD and MSc students among academic partners, as well as stays at the sites of industrial partners. The attendance of students to relevant summer schools, specialisation courses and workshops may also be supported.

6 journal publications and 8 conference contributions

The project's scientific results will be disseminated through the customary channels of the scientific community, such as journals and conferences. The project aims to publish a minimum of six articles in international, peer-reviewed, reputable, high-impact, open-access journals, and a minimum of eight presentations or posters at relevant international conferences.

First project workshop

UFC will organise a workshop, focusing on more fundamental research in degradation and prognostics.

Open-source database for project-generated data

SINTEF will prepare a collection of all publishable data produced in the project will be assembled and released under an open-source licence; some data may be anonymised upon justified request of the partners.

Second project workshop

UFC will organise a workshop focusing on the dissemination of project results.

Results from testing of the full-size stack

EK will test the diagnostic approaches for single cells and short stacks developed at FESB on the third full-size stack, to highlight any difference in behaviour and required adjustments to the prognostic approaches.

White paper on standards for hydrogen range extenders for city buses

VDL will define a public standard for battery city buses and hydrogen range extenders, focusing in particular on their interfaces (power, heat, communications, mechanical, etc.).

Rejuvenation techniques for automotive fuel cells

FESB will develop methods to reverse degradation phenomena in fuel cells for all relevant mechanisms that allow rejuvenation. These methods will be specified in written procedures, which will be validated by laboratory tests.

Evaluation of the achievement of performance targets

BEG will evaluate whether the project has produced a solution able to satisfy the targets for 2020 set by the FCH2 JU's MAWP in regards to bus and system cost, availability, consumption and lifetime, on a basis of 200 units being manufactured.

Business case of for operators of hydrogen city buses

BEG will analyse for multiple target markets the business case for integration of battery buses with hydrogen range extenders equipped with PHM-enhanced control systems, using data for at least three large European cities or metropolitan areas and two extra-European ones, to be chosen such as to represent the widest spectrum of requirements and conditions.

Model-based prognostic algorithm for PEM fuel cell systems

UFC will develop model-based prognostic algorithms for the selected BoP components (air supply unit, pressure reducer and humidifier) and for the PEM fuel cell stack. This model will be tuned based on existing experimental data provided by BEG and EK.

Control system specification and algorithms

SINTEF and BEG will define how prognostics will be integrated in the control system’s architecture, how the control system will exploit information from diagnostics and prognostics, and define in detail the algorithms it will include. UFC will support the activity with feedback on the requirements and assumptions of prognostic algorithms.

Protocols for experiments and validation activities

Based on early results in degradation mechanisms from FESB and BEG, SINTEF will develop common protocols for both accelerated and long-term testing of stacks and BoP components, with the additional support of EK for stacks and VDL for typical city bus load profiles.

Third annual data reporting

The project data will be collected according to one or more specific template(s) (depending on the technology, TRL, etc.) to be made available by the FCH2 JU in a dedicated platform/tool accessible on-line and password-protected (TEMONAS).

Second annual data reporting

The project data will be collected according to one or more specific template(s) (depending on the technology, TRL, etc.) to be made available by the FCH2 JU in a dedicated platform/tool accessible on-line and password-protected (TEMONAS).

Results from demonstration of the range extender

After receiving back the range extender from VDL with the fuel-cell system installed, BEG will run tests on it and collect data on the system within. The range extender will be tested according to long-term and accelerated protocols. The range extender will be demonstrated in a relevant environment, recreating conditions of actual usage such as load profile and exposure to elements.

Diagnostic methods for automotive fuel-cell systems

Based on the degradation phenomena identified in the project for fuel cells and BoP components, FESB and UFC will devise diagnostic methods to estimate the current state of fuel-cell systems. SINTEF will contribute to the development of methods by controllability analysis of the fuel-cell system, including proposed modifications. BEG will contribute with their detailed knowledge of component specifications.

Validation of degradation mechanisms and diagnostics in automotive fuel-cell systems in demonstration

FESB will validate the models of degradation mechanisms against data from experiments and demonstration, in particular by quantifying the time scale of accelerated testing protocols against long-term degradation data. EK will perform validation experiments on the full-size stack in the range extender, which will be delivered to EK from BEG. BEG will contribute for the part regarding BoP components. SINTEF will perform statistical analyses of validation data with the objective of identifying patterns and mechanisms in coordination with FESB, EK and BEG.

Results of experiments on BoP components

BEG will select all the system's BoP components considering their robustness and expected lifetime. This applies to all BoP components, but in particular on the three BoP components that cause most system failures or have a large impact on system cost, i.e. air supply unit, pressure reducer and the cathode inlet humidifier. These components are evaluated on a test bench before integrating them in the system; the three more important BoP components identified above will also be tested with accelerated and long-term protocols. EK will provide the BoP components that will be integrated directly in their stack’s media supply system, including sensors and equipment for droplet removal on the anodic side.

Degradation mechanisms in automotive fuel-cell systems

FESB will select, rank and quantify the most relevant degradation mechanisms in fuel cells for automotive systems. BEG will characterise degradation patterns in critical BoP components (air supply, pressure reducer and humidifier), drawing mostly from their previously available data, integrating it with laboratory experiments in case relevant data were missing.

Experimental validation of the prognostic algorithm for the PEM fuel cell system

UFC will validate the prognostic algorithms experimentally, based on data from laboratory tests performed at BEG and from demonstration. SINTEF will perform statistical analyses of validation data with the objective of identifying patterns and mechanisms in coordination with UFC.

Validation of the control system in laboratory and demonstration

BEG will validate the performance of the control system based on data obtained testing the range extenders. SINTEF will perform statistical analyses of data from laboratory tests and demonstration with the objective of identifying patterns and mechanisms.

First annual data reporting

The project data will be collected according to one or more specific template(s) (depending on the technology, TRL, etc.) to be made available by the FCH2 JU in a dedicated platform/tool accessible on-line and password-protected (TEMONAS).

Fuel-cell system assembled and commissioned

BEG will assemble the system after receiving two of the EK stacks. After assembly, BEG will perform start-up conditioning and commission the system. BEG will also perform a first test of degradation diagnostic algorithms to get a reference point for Beginning of Life (BoL).

Laboratories equipped with single cells and short stacks

EK will design single cells and short stacks for laboratory experiments at partner sites, especially FESB. EK will construct and deliver 10 cells and 2 short stacks.

Fuel-cell range extender for electric buses

VDL will engineer and build a range extender housing a fuel-cell system provided by BEG. A robust hybridisation strategy for buses and range extenders will be defined with the support of SINTEF and BEG. The range extenders will also house hydrogen storage tanks and other BoP components that will be specified, acquired and installed by VDL. VDL will assemble and commission the prototypes at their facilities, and deliver them to BEG for testing.

Full-size stacks delivered for integration into fuel-cell systems

EK will design full-size stacks for VDL's range extender. EK will manufacture three such 30kW stacks, which will be delivered to BEG for integration in the fuel-cell system.

Project Web site

SINTEF will set up and maintain a server for the project Web site, and make it available to UFC for editing.

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Publications

Model-based strategy oriented to PEMFC system prognostic for Bus transportation applications based on EMR formalism

Author(s): Petrone, Raffaele; Yousfi Steiner, Nadia; Jemeï, Samir; Harel, Fabien; Hissel, Daniel; Péra, Marie-Cécile
Published in: 7th International Conference On Fundamentals and Development of Fuel Cells, 2017
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.1048908

Control, Prognostics and Diagnostics of PEM Fuel Cells

Author(s): Zenith, Federico
Published in: EERA Fuel Cell Seminar Seminar, 2014

Rejuvenation of fuel cells

Author(s): Zenith, Federico; Tjønnås, Johannes; Halvorsen, Ivar Johan
Published in: European Fuel Cell Car Workshop, 2017

Model-based approach for prognostic in public transport systems

Author(s): Petrone, Raffaele; Steiner, Nadia; Hissel, Daniel; Péra, Marie-Cécile; Jemeï, Samir; Zerhouni, Noureddine
Published in: Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference 2017, 2017
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.1303893

LOW-FREQUENCY EIS INTERCEPT AS A DIAGNOSTIC TOOL FOR PEM FUEL CELLS DEGRADATION

Author(s): I.Pivac; I.J. Halvorsen; D. Bezmalinovic; Frano Barbir; Federido Zenith
Published in: European Fuel Cell Conference 2017, 2017
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.1160894

Diagnostics of PEMFC Degradation

Author(s): Barbir, Frano; Radica, Gjomir; Bezmalinović, Dario; Šimić, Boris; Penga, Željko; Pivac, Nikolina; Pivac, Ivan
Published in: Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference 2017, 2018
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.1304050

Low-Frequency EIS for PEM Fuel-Cell Diagnostics

Author(s): Halvorsen, Ivar Johan; Pivac, Ivan; Bezmalinović, Dario; Barbir, Frano; Zenith, Federico
Published in: Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Conference 2018, 2018
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.1303211

Ageing integration in PEMFC stack simulator for onboard prognostic purposes in electrical bus applications

Author(s): Petrone, Raffaele; Yousfi Steiner, Nadia; Hissel, Daniel
Published in: Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Conference 2018, 2018
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.1303933

The Giantleap Project: Improving reliability of hydrogen buses

Author(s): Federico Zenith
Published in: Hydrogen Innovation Festival, 2018
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.1255378

Control and prognostics for flexible hybrid battery-hydrogen buses

Author(s): Federico Zenith
Published in: Hannover Messe, Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Technical Forum, 2019
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.2631210

Integration of Ageing in a PEMFC range extender model for on-board prognostic applications

Author(s): R. Petrone, N. Yousfi Steiner, D. Hissel, M.-C. Péra, N. Zerhouni, S. Jameï, S. Hemmer, R. Bouwman
Published in: Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference 2018, 2018
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.3252575

Diagnostics, Prognostics and Control of Low-Temperature PEM Fuel Cells

Author(s): Federico Zenith
Published in: Fundamentals and Development of Fuel Cells 2019, 2019
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.2563594

Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Model for Prognosis

Author(s): A.H. Detti, S. Jemeï, N. Yousfi Steiner
Published in: Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference 2018, 2018
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.3252573

Increasing Reliability of Fuel-Cell Buses: The Giantleap Project

Author(s): Federico Zenith
Published in: Hydrogen Days, 2019
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.2631200

Fuel cell performance prediction using an Auto-Regressive Moving-Average Model

Author(s): A. H. Detti, N. Yousfi Steiner, L. Bouillaut,A. B. Same, S. Jemei
Published in: Vehicle Power Propulsion Conference, 2019
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.1467942

Electrochemical Low-Frequency Impedance Spectroscopy for Diagnostics of Fuel Cells

Author(s): Federico Zenith, Ivar J. Halvorsen, Ivan Pivac, Dario Bezmalinović, Frano Barbir
Published in: Vehicle Power Propulsion Conference, 2019
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.3490376

Relay feedback excitation for identification of Fuel Cell performance parameters

Author(s): Ivar J. Halvorsen, Federico Zenith
Published in: Nordic Process Control Workshop, 2019
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.3552727

Experimental diagnostics and modeling of inductive phenomena at low frequencies in impedance spectra of proton exchange membrane fuel cells

Author(s): Ivan Pivac, Boris Šimić, Frano Barbir
Published in: Journal of Power Sources, Issue 365, 2017, Page(s) 240-248, ISSN 0378-7753
DOI: 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2017.08.087

Catalyst degradation diagnostics of proton exchange membrane fuel cells using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

Author(s): Ivan Pivac, Dario Bezmalinović, Frano Barbir
Published in: International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Issue 43/29, 2018, Page(s) 13512-13520, ISSN 0360-3199
DOI: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2018.05.095

Electrochemical low-frequency impedance spectroscopy algorithm for diagnostics of PEM fuel cell degradation

Author(s): Ivar J. Halvorsen, Ivan Pivac, Dario Bezmalinović, Frano Barbir, Federico Zenith
Published in: International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2019, ISSN 0360-3199
DOI: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2019.04.004