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Worldwide Interoperability for SEmantics IoT

Periodic Reporting for period 1 - Wise-IoT (Worldwide Interoperability for SEmantics IoT)

Reporting period: 2016-06-01 to 2017-05-31

The Wise-IoT project creates openness by building technologies for Global IoT Systems (GIoTS) that decouple devices and applications from locally deployed IoT technology stacks. The IoT data collection, formatting, and transformation must be managed, dynamically if necessary. Remote IoT systems must be usable by an application or device irrespectively of the IoT technology for which the application or device has originally been developed. Finally, mechanisms need to be deployed that offer security, privacy, and trust in IoT infrastructure that, with the help of Wise-IoT, becomes globally interworking.
The Wise-IoT project proposal highlighted four main objectives:
• Provide a world-wide interoperable Internet-of-Things that utilizes a large variety of different IoT systems and combine them with contextualized information from various data sources.
• Prove that this system can deliver securely and dependable dynamic, real-time, and remote IoT services with automatic adaptation to available resources and data lakes at any place in the world.
• Help users to trust the GIoTS and effectively exploit it in cross regions trials.
• Strengthen the on-going international IoT standardization based on outcomes from field pilots.
World-wide Mobility means application and device mobility. Applications and devices move with the traveling user who possesses them. They imply dynamicity for interoperability as one cannot foresee at system development time when and which IoT technology stack the applications and devices will interoperate with. At the same time, the real-world contexts, legal jurisdictions, and user behaviors may change when people travel from one location to another.
Trust in IoT is instrumental in the success and viral growth of services based on IoT data, and even more so, of globally available services (GIoTS).
To distribute the requirements engineering work, we followed Conway’s law and aligned the social structure of the Wise-IoT team with the structure of the Wise-IoT system. This alignment allowed us to create a sense of ownership for experimentation sites and IoT system components and an in-depth understanding of requirements for a technological artifact by the right Wise-IoT team. We started with high-level visions of the use cases and the local IoT technology deployment stacks in the joint plenary kick-off meeting. In a series of four use case workshops, we refined the use cases and the definitions of the technology stacks. These use case workshops were followed by one global meeting where all collaborating partners finalized the negotiations and handshaked on the shared technology development, integration, and evaluation plans.
A high-level architecture based on the approach specified in ISO/IEC/IEEE 42010 standard for describing standards that proposes different architectural views and models has been developped. In particular the structure follows the reference architectures of the ISO/IEC/IEEE 42010 principles that have been specified for the IoT domain, especially the High-Level Architecture (HLA) defined by AIOTI WG3 and the IoT-A Architectural Reference Model (ARM), which uses the concept of perspectives to describe non-functional aspects relevant across different views, e.g. security, trust and semantics. Furthermore, the Korean Reference Architecture, the ISO/IEC JTC1 reference architecture, the GSMA architecture (with relation to Big Data) and the ITU-T SG20 IoT Architecture are being considered.
The Wise-IoT architecture is structured according to views and perspectives. In Wise-IoT the aim is to choose standardized enablers that are best suited for the particular task and connecting them in a suitable way to combine the particular strengths while mitigating possible weaknesses.
The Wise-IoT objectives and stakeholder needs are addressed with an integrated architectural approach that builds on established IoT standards and features the following technological contributions which have been delivered :
Morphing Gateway to offer interworking between heterogeneous IoT platforms. Different sources need to be transformed in different ways. The Morphing Gateway is the technology proposed by Wise-IoT to provide a world-wide interoperable IoT infrastructure. Based on the requirements of the target platforms, domain-specific ontologies have been developed, as in the case of the bus information system, crowd modelling and smart skiing, or existing ontologies have been re-used/enhanced as in the case of smart parking. It has been described how the ontology-based information can be used in the context of oneM2M and NGSI, and how the semantic information can be used for the translation between oneM2M and NGSI in the Semantic Mediation Gateway, which will evolve into the Adaptive Semantic Module of the Morphing Mediation Gateway in release 2 of the Wise-IoT components.

Semantic interoperability components: IoT devices must be managed to be discoverable and deliver data with appropriate quality. Wise-IoT aims at automating the discovery, provisioning, and reconfiguration functions. The first version of the MMG provides the basis for building a bridge between the NGSI layer and oneM2M layer using at least two different components from two partners of the project. Using two semantic models into an unified architecture allows the upper layer application developers to access to a larger set of data and thus propose new kinds and cross environment applications for the end user. The provided release demonstrates the interest of the approach in a world in which the set of available platforms is increasing, addressing more and more environments.
Monitoring and adaptation mechanisms: in a global interoperability and mobility context, user behaviour, IoT systems capabilities, and data quality are difficult to predict. User goal fulfilment needs to be monitored and the factors affecting user trust be identified. The monitoring and adaptation mechanism is the technology proposed by Wise-IoT to win and retain users’ trust for exploitation of data offered by global IoT infrastructure. An architecture for

Trust framework and end-to-end security: the introduction of globally connected IoT systems increases the sensitivity of the data that is being collected and the scale of risk exposure when the IoT system is being attacked. The trust framework is the technology proposed by Wise-IoT to harden the security and dependability of world-wide interoperable IoT infrastructure and has been discussed within the ITU-T Y.3052 “Overview of Trust Provisioning in ICT Infrastructures and Service” working group.
Overall, the results obtained from conceptual design, implementation, and empirical evaluation of the Wise-IoT contributions are being used to evolve the worldwide standardisation landscape. As example, the project has made participation and exhibition to two interoperability events. Additionally, the project has contributed a lot to standardisation activities.
In respect to exploitation activities, the joint EU-KR collaboration has already achieved three patents and a number of joint collaboration among project partners. Also, the Wise-IoT project is performing in-line and very well to the four main exploitation axes (i.e. research market, products markets, services and technology consulting market, and standardisation sector).
Wise-IoT initial architecture