We developed several behavioral models and were able to record neural activity during performance of these behavior. Importantly, we were able to unveil coding mechanisms in the primate amygdala that use temporal sequences of neural activations to enable rehearsal of a recently acquired emotional memory, either positive or negative. This result demonstrates directly that a recent learned emotional event is ‘rehearsed’ in the brain to allow its consolidation into memory. In a parallel project, we looked for difference between the human amygdala and the non-human-primate amygdala, and demonstrated that the ability of the neurons to code information is richer in humans, yet more robust in non-humans. This finding is one of the first to tell us why humans might have a better ability learn and generalize, but are also more vulnerable to “bugs” in the code, that might lead to psychopathologies. In addition, we developed a new framework of complex rule-learning, and show how networks in the prefrontal cortex and subcortical regions contribute in complementing manners to learning new rules, and develop coding schemes that can later be used to generalize behavior to similar rules.