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Innovative technical solutions for improved train DYNAmics and operation of longer FREIGHt Trains

Periodic Reporting for period 2 - DYNAFREIGHT (Innovative technical solutions for improved train DYNAmics and operation of longer FREIGHt Trains)

Reporting period: 2017-11-01 to 2018-06-30

DYNAFREIGHT contribute to the objectives of the EU White Paper on Transport 2011, i.e. by 2030 a shift of 30% of road freight over 300km to rail, or a doubling of the freight transport by rail compared to 2005 should be achieved. Future models of locomotives will strongly contribute to the achievement of this challenge by providing more attractive rail freight services to the final customer, with competitive rail solutions, maximizing flexibility and efficiency while reducing the operating and maintenance costs.
DYNAFREIGHT will contribute to this vision and overall concept of the EU rail freight transport by focusing on the next generation freight bogie locomotives and on preparing the path for regular operations of long freight trains (up to 1,500m), providing the first steps for the development of TD5.5 New Freight Propulsion Concepts within Shift2Rail IP5. The innovations in the two technical work packages proposed in DYNAFREIGHT are linked in the sense that the outcomes will be combined within Shift2Rail IP5 to bring a benefit at rail freight system level.
As explained above, the project will contribute to the next railway freight propulsion concepts addressing two main areas: freight running gear for locomotives and operation of long freight trains, with the following high-level objectives:
• Improved performances: traction, speed, running dynamics and wheel/rail efforts;
• Reduced rail freight noise at the source;
• Enhance capacity/traffic throughput with the operation of longer trains (up to 1,500m);
• Reduced of operation and maintenance costs (reduce wheel and rail wear, smarter maintenance, etc.).
WP2. Work has been carried out in all Tasks and a summary of the main results is reported here. Task 2.1 which was finished within Periodic Report 1, concluded that the finite element analysis carried out suggest that 37% bogie frame mass reduction is achievable using higher strength steel with conventional fabricated construction. Moreover, further mass reductions and cost reductions are possible if tubular sections are used, possibly also with novel techniques such as hydroforming and cast nodes. Task 2.2 concluded that at higher speeds, more than 4 dB noise reduction is achieved by the lateral skirt and the mitigation potential of the wheel brake discs 1dB. Moreover, given the state-of-the-art measures in this project, future locomotives can use a mix of solutions to achieve good noise performance and further examination is needed. Task 2.3 shows that the Vehicle Dynamics analysis provides a reduction in wheel/rail wear and RCF up to 40% and a reduction of TCF and settlement contributions of about are possible using appropriate steering bogie concepts. More in general, all analysed steering systems can provide good results in terms of wear, RCF and TCF although at different levels. Task 2.4 concluded that the most promising solutions are accelerometers for axlebox bearings and rubber-based monitoring. Moreover, a wayside wheel profile measurement system can be feasible for fleets of 40 locomotives or more (depending on specific exploitation conditions). Task 2.5 integrated the bogie lateral skirt for noise reduction, concluding that is a feasible solution if weight optimization is done (in order to install this solution in future freight locomotives); this task also integrated two steering concepts in an existing three axle bogie: EMD concept and SS-SYC. Results are in line with those given in Task 2.3 showing an important reduction in the wear numbers and lateral forces respect to the baseline model. Finally, the accelerometer sensors on axlebox and bogie frame were also integrated into a 3-axle bogie model, showing very little impact on the bogie concept design and a feasible solution for both retrofitting and new bogies. All work is in line with the objectives of TD5.5 in order to contribute to the deployment of more attractive rail freight services to the final customer, with competitive rail solutions maximising flexibility and efficiency while reducing the operating and maintenance costs.

WP3. Work has been carried out in all Tasks and a summary of the main results is reported here. Task 3.1 concluded that Radio and Traction components of the DPS system must at least achieve SIL2 (for the analysed radio and traction functions, higher SIL may be required for braking functions) and a new standard is needed to fix the radio technology, communication protocols, control requirements, operational procedures and restrictions. Task 3.2 identified critical attributes concerning the three-dimensional LTD behaviour and provided guidelines for train building from tolerable LCF point of view. The lack of timing in braking commands along the trains was already assumed accepting the traditional P-braking system (not using EP-braking). Also lack of timing in traction and braking commands originating from the degraded conditions above (lack of radio communication). Heterogeneities in train configuration like payload dependence of braking performance and brake block material also caused substantial longitudinal forces. A main conclusion is also that tight S-curves should be avoided when operating long heterogenous trains. Task 3.3 concluded that, in general terms, the operation of freight trains longer than 750 m would be a significant change with an impact on the safety of the infrastructure and the rolling stock. All work has been carried out in close cooperation with FFL4E project by building joint Work Packages for a full alignment of expectations and work.

WP4. The effort to raise awareness of DYNAFREIGHT activities and results continued in the second half through the publication of articles, dissemination material and the participation in conferences (such as the Freight to Rail event in Vienna) as well as the organisation of the Final Conference.
The outputs of DYNAFREIGHT will contribute to achieve the following high level impacts:
• Reduction in rolling resistance in curves by 50% and reduction in energy usage on railway lines with many tight curves by 10%. DYNAFREIGHT will achieve improved traction performance through innovations designed in Task 2.3 “Passive and Mechatronic Steering Systems” and implemented in Task 2.5 “Bogie Model Integration and Implementation”.
• Noise reduction measures have the potential to reduce noise emissions from the locomotive bogie by up to 2-3 dB. DYNAFREIGHT has allocated a specific task (Task 2.2 “Noise reduction”) to deal with identification of noise sources through improved design of wheels (considering different sizes) and designing noise absorbing structures.
• Track forces from locomotive reduced by 10% even at increased speed. Increase of freight train wheel life by 50% for lines with 5% of small curves (radius < 350m) while for non-aggressive lines (all curves with radius > 600m) the influence will lower. Reduction of track damages due to freight train traffic by 40%.
• Decrease of costs for bogie maintenance by 25% and Decrease of costs for track maintenance by 5% compared to the “State of the Art 2014”.
• Increase of overall capacity of Rail Freight Corridors: by 80% compared to the “State of the Art 2014”.
• Decrease of operational costs (and market prices) of international freight trains (Euro/tonne-km), compared to the “State of the Art 2014” by 10%.
• Reduction in transport time by improved locomotive running gear by 5% and by decongestion due to long train operation up to 5%.