Periodic Reporting for period 3 - BAoBaB (Blue Acid/Base Battery: Storage and recovery of renewable electrical energy by reversible salt water dissociation)
Reporting period: 2019-11-01 to 2021-07-31
The BAoBaB project (Blue Acid/Base Battery) aims to develop a new, environment-friendly, and cost-competitive battery for stationary electrical energy storage, and to apply this system in the existing electricity grid.
The BAoBaB technology is based on the so-called "acid-base flow battery", where electric energy can be stored by using special membranes able to generate acid and base solutions. In this way, electric energy can be stored by using only salt and water, thus providing a cost-effective, safe, and sustainable energy storage system.
Specific objectives of the BAoBaB project are:
1) to establish the market potential for the BAoBaB technology as reliable energy storage technology at kWh-MWh scale and different application levels (user premises or substation level)
2) to optimize the performance of the battery under controlled laboratory conditions, aiming to enhance round-trip efficiency
3) to develop novel components (including pH-resistant monopolar and bipolar membranes) tailored for acid-base flow battery applications
4) to upscale and demonstrate the technology at pilot scale in real environment, at a scale of 1 kW power and 7 kWh energy storage
5) to pave the road for cost competitive energy storage with attention to life-cycle cost and performance.
The cost per storage capacity for BAoBaB is expected to be lower than for chemical storage, since no expensive material is used (i.e. water and salt instead of rare metals or chemicals), thus minimizing the environmental impact. Our model predictions estimated a levelized cost of storage of <0.20 €/kWh/cycle, thus showing the potential of the technology as novel energy storage system. Moreover, the BAoBaB system has also potentially lower costs and higher performance compared to mechanical electric storage systems (e.g. PHS, or Compressed Air Energy Storage), since no high-pressure equipment are needed. Further R&D activities are currently ongoing to upscale the technology at 100 kW scale, and bring the acid-base flow battery to the market.