Periodic Reporting for period 1 - EUCHILD (Understanding the impact of EU policies on the deinstitutionalization of child care in non-EU Eastern European countries)
Reporting period: 2018-09-01 to 2020-08-31
The new data and analysis help understand the drivers behind the uneven global progress towards child wellbeing, as well as the roles of national and international actors in ensuring children's rights.
The project had several objectives. The first objective was to create a unique dataset about DI policy adoption across several countries (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Belarus, Moldova, Ukraine, and Russia). The second objective was to conduct statistical analysis, in order to understand the role of various factors in the cross-national variation in DI policy adoption. The third objective was to carry out a more in-depth, qualitative analysis of ‘successful’ DI cases, in order to understand how progress was achieved and what combinations of factors were key to the success of the reforms. To achieve these objectives, the following steps were taken: (1) cross-national policy data collection; (2) statistical analysis; (2) in-depth qualitative analysis, aimed at understanding the key drivers of national reforms, and the role played by international factors, such as the European Union.
Several articles have been published or are currently under review, such as:
• Ulybina O. The De-institutionalization of Childcare: A Global Social Policy. Under review
This article presents new data on the adoption of deinstitutionalization policy by 193 countries. The new data and analysis show the global pattern of DI policy adoption, helping us understand how public policies spread around the globe. A global map of childcare deinstitutionalization policies was produced.
• Ulybina O. When nothing really matters? Explaining the cross-national pattern of policy shift towards childcare deinstitutionalization. Under review
In this paper, I present statistical analysis, which helps understand why some countries adopted deinstitutionalization policies much earlier than other countries. For this, I collected new data on the time of DI policy adoption by 15 ex-Soviet countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. The study is highly important, as it helps understand the drivers behind the uneven global progress towards the elimination of orphanages.
• Ulybina O. Policy instrument choice under globalization: Do authoritarian states choose differently? Under review
Countries can choose different policy means (policy instruments) to achieve the same policy ends. Hypothetically, governments could introduce a variety of measures to reduce child institutionalization: tax or criminalize child abandonment, close institutions and tax/oblige members of the extended family to take care of the child; encourage local churches to provide alternative care, etc. One can hypothesize that governments will choose those, more or less coercive, options which better suit the national political culture. So, in this study, I asked Do authoritarian countries differ from non-authoritarian countries in the choice of their DI instruments? To answer this question, I collected and analysed new data on childcare deinstitutionalization policies in 15 ex-Soviet countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. The findings help understand how policy choices vary across authoritarian and non-authoritarian states.
• Ulybina O. (2020, open access) Transnational agency and domestic policies: The case of childcare deinstitutionalization in Georgia. Global Social Policy. https://doi.org/10.1177/1468018120926888
This paper is about deinstitutionalization of childcare in Georgia, which is widely regarded to be one of few success stories. In this study, I analysed national policy documents, reports of UN agencies, the European Union, USAID, and NGOs that contributed to the evolution of childcare deinstitutionalization in Georgia. I traced several developments: evolution of Georgian domestic policy versus the changing role of childcare deinstitutionalization in activities of various transnational actors, including the European Union. I found that Georgian childcare was shifting towards deinstitutionalization at the same time as global policy actors were developing their interventions in this policy area. The study highlights that national policy-makers are far from being passive adopters of international policies. It also shows how a lower middle-income country can develop advanced social policies in conditions when global actors have not agreed on this policy and have not made it a major part of their external policies yet.
Several further manuscripts are being prepared, including:
• Ulybina, O. Policy Diffusion through Interests and Ideas: Towards an integrative framework. Manuscript submitted
• Ulybina, O. Global Diffusion of Social Policies: Expected Utility and Political Will for Reform. Manuscript submitted.
• ""Westward Ho? Disability and Inclusion in Georgia and Ukraine"", for a Special Issue of Europe-Asia Studies titled “Modernizing Welfare in Russia and Other Post-Soviet States: De-institutionalization, Integration, and Agency”
The results of this research have been incorporated into university teaching materials, as well as presented at multiple international conferences."