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3D SMART MODELS FOR HERITAGE CONSERVATION An Open Science project for documentation, management and representation of Cultural Heritage

Periodic Reporting for period 1 - 3D-SMoHC (3D SMART MODELS FOR HERITAGE CONSERVATION An Open Science project for documentation, management and representation of Cultural Heritage)

Reporting period: 2017-06-05 to 2019-06-04

3D digital heritage documents are key elements on managing and communication (tangible) cultural resources. However, in practice the current 3D models do not always provide the necessary accuracy, requiring an arduous transformation process, and are not set up for reuse and long-term archiving. Without such capabilities we are left with inadequate knowledge that further limits the scope and efficiency of the use of digital heritage resources. To develop Smart Heritage 3d models means to bring to life 3d data with a) capacity for metric detailed analysis; b) capacity for expert and non-expert analysis based on non-geometrical information (attributes and relations); c) capacity for web-based discovery, publication and transmission; and d) capacity to generate static and dynamic archival illustrations and drawings.
Our main goal was to progress on the development of flows conducting to the creation 3D Smart Models for Heritage Conservation. These flows were shaped based on four fundamental paths: Remote sensing; Computer graphics and computational geometry; Historic-Building Information Modelling; and Cultural E-Learning through gamification.
In term of ‘Remote Sensing’: the project progressed on the integration of active (aerial and terrestrial laser scanner) and passive sensors (aerial and terrestrial photogrammetric techniques).
The key role of photogrammetry and laser scanning surveying methods for Heritage conservation project is demonstrated on the published paper: ‘Terrestrial laser scanning and digital photogrammetry for heritage conservation’, 2nd International Conference of Geomatics and Restoration, On this paper, it was also introduced a common path for heritage documentation ranging from recording to digital data management and diagnosis, resulting in criteria and guidelines for the intervention actions.

Following this line, it was also published another paper: ‘Graphical data flow based in Terrestrial Laser Scanning and photogrammetry for consolidation studies of historical sites. The case study of Juromenha fortress in Portugal’, where it is proposed a data flow for the integration of sensor and multi-nature data in conservation and rehabilitation project. The proposed flow is enriched with a detailed analysis on data extraction and data management, as well study on how data was shared among the project team and how it is used.

In terms of Computer graphics and computational geometry, and having developed a workflow for sensor integration, 3D-SMOHC progressed on improving the representation of 3D models related with cultural assets, in order to address the proper interpretation of evidences from the past. The workflow integrates considerations on: (i) The orientation of archaeological artifact; (ii) the creation of accurate orthometric images based on Digital photogrammetry techniques; and (iii) the application of synthetic attached and cast shadows according the shape (information) to be represented. Progresses were published in: ‘Representation of synthetic shadows on 3d digital models for the volumetric interpretation on concave-convex archaeological artifacts, 8th International Workshop 3D-ARCH 3D’.
Connecting the fields of computational geometry and Historic-Building Information Modelling, the project developed transformation sequences and guidelines for smart modelling. This issue was also supported with hosting three academic course where, together with MSc. and PhD candidates, it was developed a semiautomatic transformation path for transforming of raw remote-sensing based documents on H-BIM data. The case study for this specific development was Aldeias de Xisto, a heritage protected area that suffered from a large fire in 2017.
In terms of Cultural E-Learning through gamification, following the before mentioned progresses, on the one hand, 3D-SMOHC reviews the use of serious and commercial videogames in CH to frame and properly identify characteristics for the selection and assessment of videogames in the context of cultural communication. Based on the analysis of videogame’s capacities to motivate, immerse and represent reality, Minecraft was identified as one of the optimal solutions to represent and promote engagement with the cultural built environment. As such, 3D-SMOHC assess the capacity of the videogame Minecraft as an efficient tool to communicate built heritage environment, considering identified criteria on immersion, motivation and fidelity on simulation. Paper is currently in the second round of revision in the Journal of Heritage, paper’s title: ‘Cultural Heritage and Communication through Simulation Videogames’.

On the second hand, the project developed a production path to semiautomatic transform point clouds (surveyed by aerial LIDAR) to Minecraft (videogame) world. title: Solution Supporting the Communication of the Built Heritage: Semi-automatic Production Path to Transfer Semantic LIDAR Data to Minecraft Environment. The study was submitted to the journal Digital Applications in Archaeology and Cultural Heritage and it’s still on revision.

Exploitation of results:
• Workflows of remote sensing integration are being currently in use by the School of Architecture, University of Lisbon
• Production path to transform LIDAR data into Minecraft environment is being currently use by Tampere University of Technology and research center CIAUD.
• Redenrization techniques are now part of the solutions offered by the School of Architecture and the Nova University of Lisbon, for cultural artifact interpretation and communication
• 4 manuscripts in peer-reviewed conference and 2 papers in high ranked journal
Working with Cultural Heritage from a Socio-Human Perspective, means advancing on actions with societal implication. This idea was integrated in every step of the project, even the more technological one. All main progresses where attached with a social-educational initiative.
Within the project scope, they were taught three formal courses:
1 edition of Practice on Digital Heritage: bringing the feedback on Heritage communication based in digital data
2 editions of: Digitization, VR and Animation: Bringing the feedback on the transformation process from raw data into 3D smart models, and its use in heritage conservation contexts.
Beside the coordinated course, 3D-SMOHC´s progresses were integrated in other academic courses where we were invited: Archaeology of Architecture, and Methodologies of Archaeological fieldworks, both coordinated by the Faculty of Social and Human Sciences, Nova University of Lisbon. The project was enriched with a solid feedback and vision on digital data preservation and cultural dissemination.
It was also coordinated and developed the Summer School Unveiling the Hidden Hamina, conducted in Hamina City, Finland, together with our partners at the Tampere University of Technology and Tampere University of Applied Sciences. The summer School explored the integration/use of digital data for social institution (Association of Historical Houses of Hamina) and general public. The experience brought a solid knowledge on data reuse and the integration of local communities in the data co-creation processes, and the engagement of community through Smart 3D Data. Progresses of this experience were published in CIPA 2019 conference, manuscript title: Integrating digital documentation and community engagement: ‘unveiling the hidden Hamina’ international summer school.