The findings for the main project (Q1) are in the process of being written up and have been presented at several conferences and seminars. The results so far suggest that decreased monthly benefit amounts for mothers, that arise due to the cap in benefits, reduce earnings gender inequality in the couple in the leave period and in some cases this effect persists into the long-run. The results on Q2 are now published in the Journal of Public Economics. In short, they suggest that differences in parental demand do only explain a part of the enrolment gaps for children whose mothers have lower educational attainment. The rest of the gap can be explained by policy factors that influence accessibility. The enrolment gaps are made bigger in the presence of large local shortages of places, and parental contributions to fees. Interpreting these results suggests that when getting ECEC places is competitive it is better resourced parents who are able to secure scarce spots. Further, even though fees are income adjusted, they are enough to put off less well resourced parents. For children whose parents are migrants, the results are very different: there are no differences in demand, and neither shortages nor fees seem to affect the sizeable enrolment gap. Here evidence suggests that making ECEC more welcoming for children of difference cultures and religions may be helpful. The results of Q3 are published as a discussion paper and have been presented at several conferences and seminars. The paper is under view at a journal. The time use data show that attending ECEC results in a decrease in the time that parents' spend with the enrolled child (logically) but not such a large decrease in the time spent on specific activities with the child such as reading, talking and playing. As a result the quality of the overall time with the child does up on this measure with possible implications for child development. This effect is largest for children with mothers with lower education attainment perhaps providing an additional explanation for greater development effects recorded in the literature. Finally, the results of Q4 suggest that the school and day care closures associated with the pandemic mostly increased gender inequality in the sharing of care work in the home.