Periodic Reporting for period 1 - SOLSTORE (Solid-state reactions for thermal energy storage)
Reporting period: 2017-03-15 to 2019-03-14
The project SOLSTORE proposes the development of a new kind of materials, based on solid-state reactions, with high potential for cost-effective and compact TES at high temperature (300-800°C). The storage of heat through reversible chemical reactions is very attractive due to the possibility to store great amount of thermal energy in form of chemical energy. The development of TCS based on solid-state reactions is a new storage concept with the potentiality to contribute to the development of low-cost, compact heat storage technologies. The expected advantages of using solid-state reaction are: i) simple reaction mechanisms compared to other types of thermo-chemical storage (e.g. gas-solid reactions), ii) in contrast to gas-solid reactions, no phase separation is required, contributing to the design of simpler storage systems, iii) possible direct contact of the storage material with the heat transfer fluid (no heat exchanger/lower cost).
The overall objectives of the projects include i) the identification and theoretical analysis of solid-state reactions of interest for TES; ii) the development of a strategy to maximize the reactivity in the solid state; iii) the evaluation of the performances of the materials developed in terms of thermal energy storage for the possible integration in real applications.
The results of the theoretical investigation allowed achieving a list of reactions (13 possible candidates) with promising theoretical volumetric energy densities. The second step of the investigation was focused on the experimental study of the systems selected, being the most promising candidate in terms of theoretical energy density and reaction temperature, and the evaluation of their possible use as TES materials.
One of the major challenges of the project was to develop materials with suitable reactivity (yield/kinetic/reversibility). Solid-state reactions are governed by the atomic diffusion in the solid state for this reason a synthesis strategy was defined to maximize the reactivity in the solid state. This included the synthesis of materials with different microstructure (nanostructured materials) to increase the diffusion in the solid state by i) decreasing the atomic diffusion path length (small grain sizes as well as small particle sizes), ii) introducing structural defects (dislocation, grain boundaries step, kink and corner atoms etc) and iii) promoting high intermixing degree (high contact area between the reagent). The effect of the synthesis parameters on the microstructure and reactivity of the powders have been analysed and optimal synthesis conditions have been established. As a result of this study, materials with tailored microstructures were synthesized with the objective to guaranty the maximum yield of the reaction (complete conversion of the reagent into the products and reversibility).
The main results achieved during the project can be summarized as follow:
• The work carried out allowed to identify several promising solid-state reactions that could selected for experimental investigation as possible candidate for the application in thermal energy storage.
• Different solid-state reaction were/are studied experimentally and their performance as TES material evaluated.
• The link between microstructure and reactivity was proven, with the identification of best the microstructural conditions to maximize the reactivity in the solid state.