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Advanced integrative solutions to Corrosion problems beyond micro–scale: towards long-term durability of miniaturized Biomedical, Electronic and Energy systems

Periodic Reporting for period 2 - mCBEEs (Advanced integrative solutions to Corrosion problems beyond micro–scale: towards long-termdurability of miniaturized Biomedical, Electronic and Energy systems)

Reporting period: 2019-10-01 to 2021-09-30

mCBEEs ITN was a joint venture between academy and industry with a primary goal to train young researchers in the field of corrosion and corrosion protection at micro- and nanoscale. The network focused on the study of corrosion mechanisms beyond microscale of components in miniaturized systems in different environments using localized techniques, and the development of multifunctional protective coatings to increase the long-term durability of such components. Three main strategic application fields where corrosion could seriously compromise the performance of micro- or nanodevices have been identified: biotechnology, electronics and energy technology.
mCBEEs brought together 15 beneficiaries and 4 partners. The Consortium complementarity enabled a highlevel, multifaceted educational programme, where specials efforts have been done to bridge fundamental research with industrial applications.
The overall long-term research aim of the mCBEEs project was to study and evaluate corrosion issues in technologically relevant micro- and nanostructured components and to provide effective solutions for the prevention of corrosion. As such, 6 specific research objectives underlied this overall aim:
1. To study the micro- and nanoscale corrosion mechanisms using localized techniques.
2. To model corrosion processes at the microscale.
3. To develop and characterize the protective multifunctional coatings on selected miniaturized systems.
4. To develop corrosion resistant biomedical devices.
5. To develop corrosion resistant micro- and nanoelectronics devices.
6. To develop corrosion resistant electrochemical energy conversion systems.
The research objectives of mCBEEs have been fully met.
Recruitment: 15 ESRs have been recruiting after a selection procedure among 475 applications.
Training: 5 training events have been organized: 1) Fundamentals of electrochemistry and corrosion mechanisms – TUD 15-20/07/2018, 2) Structural, mechanical and surface analytical techniques – JTH 6-9/11/2018, 3) Fundamentals of corrosion protection and coatings production – JSI 24-29/06/2016, 4) Corrosion protection at micro-scale - application fields – UAB 18-20/11/2019, 5) Innovation and Technology Transfer – VUB (Online event) 25/05-19/06/2020
Research activities:
WP2: The corrosion mechanisms in the three application fields have been studied. In particular, localized electrochemical techniques were used to evaluate corrosion phenomena in implantable alloys, micro-nano swimmers, SD memory cards and fuel cells bipolar plates
WP3: A Dynamic Electrolyte Film Model has been developed which numerically simulates the thickness evolution of a uniform thin electrolyte layer due to condensation/evaporation of moisture. A deterministic pitting corrosion model has been implemented and validated on aluminium alloys.
WP4: Different types of coatings have been developed for different applications. In particular, ALD Al2O3 and HfO2 single and multilayer coatings as well as chitosan based coatings have been developed on biomedical alloys, Ni-Sn, SnNiCu and Ag pure and composite coatings have been produced by electrodeposition from ionic liquids on printed circuit boards and Ce based conversion coatings have been developed and studied to protect aluminium alloys.
WP5: Ferromagnetic-ferroelectric multilayers, self-rolled helicalr structures and core-shell nanoparticles composed by CoFe2O4-BaTiO3 (CFO-BTO) have been prepared and characterized. Electrolytic anodization has been used to create nanotubes arrays on Ti6Al4V implantable alloy decorated with either Cu, Zn or Ag nanoparticles to enhance osteointegration and to decrease the microbial risk. Rat organotypic cultures as model of epilepsy have been successfully established in culture.
WP6: Integrated multifunctional hinged nanorobots with high biocompatibility has been produced consisting of a magnetic Ni head and a Rh tail connected with a deformable hinge. A wearable sensing device combining electromagnetic metamaterial resonators with surface acoustic wave actuators has been developed for sweat sampling.
WP7: Electrodeposition of Ni-Pt porous film, anodization of Ni foams in molten salts and template assisted electrodeposition to produce free-standing nanowires are the techniques which have been used in order to obtain high active surface and corrosion resistant electrodes. NiPt nanoparticles have also been deposited on GDLs and tested in PEMFC.
29 scientific peer-reviewed papers and 42 presentations to international/national congresses have been produced. mCBEEs dedicated sessions have been organized in Electrochem 2019 and Eurocorr 2020 conferences. A final mCBEEs workshop has been organized and held online on July 2021. The mcbees activities were also reported in bulletins of scientific and technical journals of industrial associations and continuously through the web site of the project, on facebook, twitter and linkedin pages and videos prepared by the ESRs have been published to the mCBEEs youtube channel.
Within the 48 months the research activities lead to different scientific advances such as:
-Study of the effect of protein absorption on implantable metal parts with localized techniques.
-Study of the corrosion resistance of NiCo and NiCo/Au micropillars in simulated body fluids using electrochemical and surface analysis techniques
-Production of ferromagnetic-ferroelectric multilayers, CoFe2O4-BaTiO3 (CFO-BTO) on MgO substrate
- Fabrication of self-rolled magnetoelectric bilayer structures and core-shell CoFe2O4-BaTiO3 nanoparticles
-Study of the degradation mechanisms of core-shell CoFe2O4-BaTiO3 nanoparticles in human body simulated media
-Study of the degradation of electronic components with localized techniques
-Production of self standing Ni nanowires, mesoporous Ni-Pt films and Ni-Pt nanoparticles on GDLs
-Production of multifunctional hinged consisting of a magnetic Ni head and a Rh tail connected with a deformable hinge
-Production of a wearable sensing device combining electromagnetic metamaterial resonators with surface acoustic wave actuators for sweat sampling.
-Study of the corrosion resistance of bipolar plates used in fuel cells using both large and micro-scale electrochemical techniques
-Fabrication of Ni-Sn alloy and Ni-Sn/reduced graphene oxide composite coatings using ionic liquids
-Electrodeposition of SnNiCu alloys on printed circuit boards
-Production of chitosan based composite coating on biodegradable Mg alloys
-Study of the role of intermetallic in Al alloys on the deposition of Ce based conversion coatings
-Deposition of Al2O3 and HfO2 single or multilayered thin films on implantable alloys by ALD. Study of their corrosion resistance in simulated body fluids
-Production of TiO2 nanotubes on the surface of Cp-Ti and Ti6Al4V implantable alloys and their decoration with either Cu, Zn or Ag nanoparticles to increase osteointegration and reduce infection risks.
-Long term assessment of nervous tissue response to implantable micro-electrodes and Establishment of brain organotypic cultures as 3D models to test biocompatibility
-Development of a numerical model to study corrosion in systems with decreasing electrolyte layer thickness and implementation and validation of a deterministic pitting corrosion model
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