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Innovative tools for offshore wind and DC grids

Periodic Reporting for period 2 - InnoDC (Innovative tools for offshore wind and DC grids)

Reporting period: 2019-09-01 to 2021-12-31


InnoDC (Innovative tools for offshore wind and direct current (DC) grids) was to train 15 early-stage researchers (ESRs) in offshore wind energy and DC grids. The project’s partners were a mix of academic and industrial organisations based in Europe and China. This ensured a combination of knowledge and expertise for the ESRs to become international renewable energy experts.

Problem addressed:

The ESRs' research focused on models and methods to integrate new technology (eg offshore wind turbines, computational tools, VSC HVDC converters, long AC cables) into the power-system. They worked with experts to tackle issues, such as how to adapt new devices that behaved differently to traditional power-systems. As the systems have distinct elements, each with limited information of the overall system, the ESRs developed tools to aid the new system users.

Importance for society:

Europe’s power system has changed significant in recent decades, notably in the development of renewable energy, such as wind-energy. Further changes are essential to make our energy system ready to contribute to the United Nations' climate goals, as well as provide the necessary skilled workforce. InnoDC prepared the ESRs to work towards Europe retaining its position of leadership in renewable energy and in tackling climate change.

Overall objective:

To train a new generation of researchers capable of converting their new knowledge of offshore wind power and DC grids into future products and services.


The ESRs are now highly qualified engineers with international networks, employed in industry or academia, and contributing to the installation and operation of future DC grids within Europe and the UK.
The ESRs' technical work is divided into 3 work packages (WP). They summarise the purpose of their work in these 2-3 minute videos:

1- Components of DC grids & wind farms:

2 - Connection of offshore wind farms:

3 - Hybrid AC/DC grids:

They worked on the following Deliverables & Milestones from the beginning of the project to 31 December 2021 (end):

WP1 - Components of DC grids and wind farms (Lead: B2 UPC):

D1.1 (Aug 2018) Report on the evaluation of DC/DC converters, submarine cables and offshore substations on losses, cost, economy and reliability.

MS1 (Aug 2018) Targeted models of MMCs, DC/DC transformers, HVDC outdoor insulation, cost analysis and SCADA/EMS determined.

D1.2 (Feb 2019) Report on the control requirements, protections and fault management of DC/DC converters and MMCs.

D1.3 (Aug 2019) Methodology for reducing the weight and costs of the HV and MV equipment for connecting to AC and DC systems.

MS2 (Aug 2019) Methodology for weight and cost reduction of power converter stations presented.

D1.4 (Feb 2020) Toolboxes of a general modelling method for power electronic converters, MMC control design and designing and analysing DC transfomers.

D1.5 (Aug 2021) Report on the toolboxes and experimental validation of design, and models of DC transformer, EMS and SCADA.

MS3 (Aug 2020) Toolboxes and models validated with relevant cases.

WP2 - Connections of offshore wind farm (Lead: B6 DTU):

D2.1 (Aug 2018) Progress report on review and evaluation of OWPP control systems, collection configurations & transmission technologies, offshore electrical resonance instability phenomenon.

MS4 (Aug 2018) Targeted models of DC collection system, low frequency AC offshore transmission, wind turbines determined.

D2.2 (Feb 2019) Algorithms on characterising analytically resonance frequencies & power management.

D2.3 (Aug 2019) Report on optimal control, resonance mitigation and system configuration, tool for technical and economic analysis of different transmission technologies combined with different collection concepts.

MS5 (Aug 2019) New algorithms for electrical instability analysis and cluster control.

D2.4 (Feb 2020) Control solutions for island operation and black start capabilities of OWPP.

D2.5 (Aug 2020) Tools for analysing resonances, design and control interactions.

MS6 (Aug 2020) Innovative tools for resonance analysis, design and control interactions available and verified.

WP3 - Hybrid AC/DC grid (interactions between AC & DC grids) (Lead: B7 KU Leuven):

D3.1 (Aug 2018) Progress report on the review and evaluation of DC and AC grid operation and interactions in different time frames.

MS7 (Aug 2018) Targeted models of hybrid AC/DC grids, controller design methods, reliability assessment methods determined.

D3.2 (Feb 2019) Report on dynamic converter interactions and the feasibility of different software routines to represent the problems.

D3.3 (Aug 2019) Mathematical framework for converter interaction modelling.

MS8 (Aug 2019) Protection algorithms of DC grids considering AC/DC interactions proposed and verified.

D3.4 (Feb 2020) Protection of hybrid AC/DC grids: feasible and implementable approaches.

D3.5 (Aug 2020) Feasible implementable approaches to modelling dynamic converter interactions with the large-scale AC system and wind farms.

MS9 (Aug 2020) Tool to assess AC/DC grid reliability is validated with relevant cases.

Dissemination & Communication overview can be seen in the WP5 Deliverables & Milestones (Lead: B4 Uporto):

MS12 (March 2018) First network-wide public outreach event.

MS13 (Feb 2019) All ESRs to have presented results to groups outside network/host institutions

D5.1 (Dec 2021) ESR publications in international conferences and journals.

D5.2 (Aug 2021) Outreach activities organised.

D5.3 (Dec 2021) Project newsletters circulated.

D5.4 (Dec 2021) Identification of exploitable project outputs.
The ESR training was designed in accordance with the EU Strategic Framework for Education & Training, and to foster ‘responsible research and innovation’. This included public work, open access, gender issues, ethics, education and promotion.

InnoDC shared, and continues to share, its research within academia and industry. It published, and continues to publish, journal articles ( and presented at international conferences (

Its work package reports are available to read on the website at

It invited other researchers to its network meetings to build collaboration; it discussed research with other experts at HVDC colloquiums and formed collaborative relationships

The ESRs met policy-makers ( and talked to the public about their work at numerous events (

It sent newsletters which were posted on the website ( for which subscribers included industry experts, academics, policy-makers, government officials and members of the public.

The project posted updates on its Twitter and LinkedIn. It uploaded its own project-related videos on its YouTube channel ( and on the website (

Collaborative relationships and development work have led to follow-on projects and joint publications.

The overall effect was, and still is, internationally shared knowledge and raised public awareness.
Network meeting, Elia, Brussels
InnoDC at IEEE PEGD workshop Imperial College
Vaishally Bhardwaj on secondment at UPC
Jovana Dakic and Wei Liu at school Science Magic workshop
Davide Pinzan delivers a virtual energy workshop EU Researchers Night
Luis Orellana and Prof Jun Liang Cardiff lab
InnoDC feature written and designed by the ESRs - European Energy Innovation
Peng Yang poster IEEE ECCE, USA
Emily Maggioli, Peng Yang, Anubhav Jain & Daniel Westerman Spier IECON conference
Motaz Ayiad Secondment at Uporto
Motaz Ayiad & Stephen Hardy deliver energy workshop to European teachers
Network visit to National Control Centre, Belgium
Anubhav Jain delivers school workshop, India