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QUantum Electronics Science and TECHnology training

Periodic Reporting for period 2 - QuESTech (QUantum Electronics Science and TECHnology training)

Reporting period: 2020-01-01 to 2021-12-31

Quantum Electronics deals with the physics of electronic circuits or devices in which electrons behave as quantum objects, either due to small dimensions and/or due to external conditions. Quantum Electronics provides an innovative and multidisciplinary framework for training young researchers with excellent prospects for a career either in industry or in academia. The “Quantum Electronics Science and Technology training” project, with acronym QuESTech, created a European network of experts providing challenging, state-of-the-art training for young researchers in the general field of experimental, applied, and theoretical Quantum Electronics.

The overarching science and technology goal of our research programme was to build, study, and qualify quantum electronic devices. The widely announced forthcoming "second quantum revolution" made it extremely timely in terms of research, and also training, as a new generation of “quantum scientists” is needed.

"Long-term nanoscience research will continue to play a key role by offering alternatives such as spin electronics, molecular electronics and quantum computing." This statement from the "e-vision 2020" document from the EC-funded ENIAC European Technology Platform states that improving our conceptual understanding of quantum electron transport at the nanoscale is needed for enabling the emergence of “Beyond C-MOS” nanoelectronic devices. In 2016, the Quantum Manifesto has established the need for advances in the quantum engineering of devices with new functionalities, which is one of the objectives of the Flagship initiative on Quantum Technologies. The QuESTech consortium has identified several major challenges in the advancement of Quantum Electronics towards applications. By addressing these, QuESTech provided both a deeper fundamental knowledge of Quantum Electronics as well as a firm basis for the development of innovative quantum devices.
We have recruited in time all Early Stage Researchers. All PhD projects started in 2018. QuESTech has trained 15 ESRs, who stayed throughout the project’s duration, through research in the sub-fields of spintronics, single-electronics, quantum dots, and quantum thermodynamics.

The project website https:/www.questech.org is public. The website will be maintained for at least two more years (and longer if judged useful).

We organized the summer schools ESONN’18,ESONN'19, ESONN'20 and ESONN'21.
The first Special Training Session on scientific presentation took place in San Sebastian, Spain. The second Special Training Session on scientific writing was organised in Konstanz, Germany. The third Special Training Session focused on Interpersonal communication at work; Gender equality in science careers; and Career prospects for scientists in the private sector, and was held in Grenoble, France. The last Special Training Session took place online because of travel restrictions. It was organised by Aalto University and QTF Finland and treated IPR and entrepreneurship.

There have been 45 publications so far. They are all in open access.

During the first reporting period, we have submitted 24 deliverables and we have reached 13 milestones. During the second reporting period we have submitted the remaining deliverables and reached the last two milestones.
All tasks have been addressed.

The most important innovative elements for the project have been obtained.
First, the calorimetric detection of a single microwave photon has been a breakthrough in quantum sensing of quantum bits (Aalto press releases in January and June 2020).
Second, a novel technology for the growth of graphene on h-BN over a full 4" wafer was developed. Its exploitation is planned by Graphenea.
Third, a new mask-free method to pattern metallic nanowires with good transport properties was achieved in tungsten nanowires.

Concerning the self-powered organic spintronic device with concomitant photoelectric effect: the commercialization of the devices seems premature at this stage as we have only demonstrated the effect in laboratory conditions, but appropriate measures are being studied towards filling intellectual protection of the ideas developed under this project.
The QuESTech consortium trained young researchers in Quantum Electronics Science and Technology in order to address socio-economic needs. The diverse expertise, unique facilities, and outstanding courses made available by QuESTech participants mean that QuESTech ESRs have benefited from a research and training environment of outstanding quality to develop their skills.

As their research topics are at the forefront of quantum scientific research, ESRs have been the authors of high-profile publications. We had many journal publications and several contributions to an international conference by the ESRs in the course of their research project within QuESTech.

All QuESTech ESRs have contributed to open scientific events. Some have also participated in a lab visit by the general public, at their own group or other premises. Unfortunately the Covid-19 pandemic caused many cancellations during 2020 and 2021.

QuESTech ESRs have made two professionally edited videos explaining their research in plain terms to showcase the importance of Quantum Electronics.

QuESTech has a Twitter feed maintained by the Coordinator and the PMO. The QuESTech ESRs maintained a blog, which they regularly updated with scientific information about their progress in training and in research. QuESTech also has a LinkedIn group.

The ESRs have created their network within Quantum Electronics and will continue to collaborate in the future.

We organised a hybrid Final Conference in Sweden in November 2021, where all ESRs gave an invited talk and 6 renowned experts in the field presented the latest updates in their research specialisation. Many expressed the wish for a follow-up conference.

Four ESRs have already defended their thesis within the project's time span.
The electrodes are made with 2-dimensional graphene layers.
The electronic dipole of the molecular layer can change the superconductor transition temp. by 50%
Kondo quantum dot with thermally isolated source