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Commercial vehicles using Optimised Liquid biofuels and HVO Drivetrains

Periodic Reporting for period 1 - COLHD (Commercial vehicles using Optimised Liquid biofuels and HVO Drivetrains)

Reporting period: 2017-11-01 to 2019-04-30

In the current situation, 96.6% of the road transport relies on fossil diesel to run and road transport accounts for almost the 20% of the total Green House Gasses emission in Europe. Despite the fact that some solutions have been identified and suggested, the number of OEMs so far involved is limited and there is still no mass adoption of these solutions. For instance, if alternative fuel vehicles only represented 3.4% of the European car fleet in 2012, the use of alternative fuels in HDV (Heavy Duty Vehicle) is negligible (highly dependent on diesel).
The bottlenecks hampering the development of this sector include: low volume production and subsequent high development costs; lack of proper refuelling infrastructure, little awareness and wide reluctance of general public towards alternative fuels, lack of an established market for HDV running with sustainable renewable fuels, and finally safety concerns related to the operation and refuelling of the trucks.
COLHD, is a Horizon 2020 European Funded project, will help removing these bottlenecks, addressing the problem with three different tactics, bring new technologies to market, spur an optimized infrastructure improvement and propose measure to reduce societal and economical barriers. Altogether this creates the holistic vision of COLHD aiming to re-shape the Alternative Fuel future for Heavy Duty Vehicles.
Study for pre-selecting innovative and economically viable bio-sourced fuel mixtures
In this study, the GHG emissions reduction capability of renewable fuels to be used by the prototypes was analysed together with the fuel production and distribution costs, their availability in 2030 and 2050 and the estimated final-user costs.

Design of a Multi-Point Injection (MPI) system for the 480HP diesel dual-fuel low pressure engine (HVO-LBM)
This new design aimed to improve the previous design for the HDGAS project and ensure better operation of the dual-fuel operation mode.

Design and development of prototype components for the 560HP natural gas direct injection prototype (HVO-LBM)
The development and integration of a dual-stage Variable Valve Timing system on a newly designed cylinder head was completed as well as the development of injectors and software needed for the high-pressure system.

Study of different injection strategies for the 480HP diesel dual-fuel high pressure engine (HVO-LBP)
With a dedicated Constant Volume Combustion Chamber, it was possible to study the combustion performance of various fuels (Diesel, HVO )and fuel blends (HVO-LBP) and simulate multiple engine conditions in order to define different injection strategies.

Optimization of after-treatment system for 480HP diesel dual-fuel low-pressure engine (HVO-LBM) and 480HP diesel dual-fuel high-pressure engine (HVO-LBP)
The exhaust gas after-treatment system for demonstrator vehicles was decided after performing the following activities in the laboratory: screen recent catalyst technology with simulated exhaust gas, develop a regeneration method to improve durability, screen evaluated advanced exhaust gas after-treatment systems under realistic engine-out emissions in laboratory test rig and estimate overall durability.

Design and build up of the combined fuel storage tank for the high-pressure gas injection vehicle demonstrator
This combined tank aimed to integrate LNG, diesel/HVO for the pilot jet, hydraulic oil for the high-pressure pump drive as well as AdBlue for exhaust after-treatment into one liquid storage system. The concept development was complemented by the design of the plumbing system for the LNG storage and the design of the pre-feed system including the selection of useable cryogenic shut-off valves.

First designing steps to build an automatic ullage system
To build this system, a smart ECU (Electronic Control Unit) combined with a set of sensors was developed. Design a Boil-Off Gas Recovery Storage (BOGRS) system control.
Mathematical models were made to understand the heat ingress into an LNG tank under various environmental conditions, BOG events were successfully simulated and BOGRS potential capacity (NG kg) was calculated based on scientific papers. Also, the concept of integration for the BOG system in the future demonstrator truck was studied and approved.

First two PEM tests
Two PEMs were carried out during the project on two different trucks ( 1 LNG 400hp Iveco Stralis truck and 1 diesel 400hp Iveco Stralis) in order to define baseline emissions and efficiency of SotA vehicles.

Preliminary screening of market barriers to the alternative fuels
This pre-analysis was based on the results obtained from literature review, online questionnaires and interviews to relevant stakeholders at EU level.

Dissemination activities
During the active implementation phase of the project it was possible to submit a dissemination strategy, create the project website, deliver two project Newsletters, form a dedicated COLHD communications group with marketing and corporate communication representatives of all partner organisations as well as create several project image materials including COLHD logos, brochures and dedicated templates.
The expected progress beyond the state of the art as a result of the successful implementation of the COLHD Project, included advancements in three different powertrain prototypes working on Diesel dual-fuel technology, selected after-treatments, Boil-Off Gas Retention system and combined fuel storage tank. The ultimate goal of these advancements was to enable purchasers to buy high-performance, clean, safe, affordable heavy-duty vehicles, designed to run on alternative renewable fuels. Due to the early termination of the project it was not possible to reach the desired impact; nonetheless, some advancements were achieved as a result of completing several technical tasks. For the HVO-LBM NGDI prototype, a newly developed two-stage variable valve timing system was completed. This, together with the designed and built cylinder head with double overhead camshaft, aimed to provide the close control that is necessary for combusting the fuel with higher efficiency and lower raw emissions. Also, an optimized after-treatment system was chosen for the HVO-LBM DDF LP prototype. This system included the best catalyst configuration lay-out as well as an appropriate low-temperature regeneration method. For the HVO-LBP DDF HP, the study of combustion and auto-ignition properties of the LBP fuel matrix in a controlled environment allowed injection strategies to be defined. This first step was a key stone of this prototype development, as currently no heavy-duty vehicles run with that fuel blend. The final combined fuel storage tank and BOGRS system could not be built during the active state of the project. Nonetheless, it was possible to decide upon the best design option for both systems and to start the prototyping and testing phase. The COLHD consortium is confident that these advancements will be useful stepping stones for future technological developments in the market of heavy-duty vehicles.