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InteGrated and PHysically Optimised Battery System for Plug-in Vehicles Technologies

Periodic Reporting for period 3 - GHOST (InteGrated and PHysically Optimised Battery System for Plug-in Vehicles Technologies)

Reporting period: 2020-10-01 to 2021-12-31

The GHOST project aims to develop an integrated and physically optimised Battery System (BS) for BEV and PHEV applications, designing a novel and modular battery system with higher energy density based on the state-of-the-art of lithium-ion cell technologies. The primary objective is to develop mass-producible innovative and integrated solutions to reduce the battery integration cost through smart design taking into account recycling and the need for mass production. The BS solutions developed within the project will be demonstrated at laboratory level (TRL 5) and within two demonstrator vehicles, namely FIAT 500X P-HEV (400V) passenger car and IVECO BEV (800V) bus, under real-life conditions focusing on performance and operational/functional safety. In addition a novel Dual Battery System concept based on new emerging battery technologies and high power lithium-ion battery will be developed, tested and validated at the laboratory level (TRL 4).
•Investigation into suitable cell technologies according to the corresponding applications (FIAT 500X P-HEV, IVECO BEV Bus) and usage profiles (driving range, operation time, charging time): Li-Ion cells (Toshiba Lithium Titanium Oxide 23 Ah) were selected.
•Analysis of the most appropriate BS architecture focusing on the modularity, functionality, safety, costs, volume and weight requirements.
•Address the use of novel compound sandwich material for the housing and structure to reduce the weight and volume overhead.
•Investigation into innovative cooling solutions.
•Development of the electrical design matching the modular requirement while providing flexibility with respect to the corresponding applications (FIAT 500X P-HEV, IVECO BEV Bus); integration of reversible cell-to-cell connections with voltage, temperature and current measurement into the novel Power PCBs, monitored by the UCSB (BMS).
•Investigations into a new cell temperature monitoring system based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements; Definition of a measurement plan using the PCB demonstrator and preparation of related the lab. equipment.
•Development and execution of a test methodology for characterization and ageing of batteries to assess the LTO-based cell electrical, thermal and lifetime behaviour; definition of the cells parameters for the modelling requirements; definition of standardized test protocols and models for the next generation of cell technologies such as Li-S; development of a 1D-electro-thermal and a 3D thermal model for the LTO cell at different operating temperatures (0°C to 45°C);
•Development of a multi-concern safety methodology to support the holistic safety analysis of the BS with reference to standards (e.g. ISO 26262) and based on the Failure Mode & Effect Analysis method;
•Definition and application of a test strategy to enable the validation of system safety under laboratory conditions emulating real operational conditions, reflecting the identified critical failures and operational scenarios, application to the 2nd life application);
•Evaluation of the 2nd life aspects of Li-Ion batteries through specific use case scenarios and system specifications with respect to the 1st life (remaining capacity, 1st life history, etc.);
•Generation of fundamental design requirements and execution into the BS design to reduce the cost of dismantling and for EoL operations.
•Development of a comprehensive re-qualification test program; Evaluation of testing and assembling cost towards reuse and 2nd life evaluation.
•Design of a novel scaled-down laboratory level Dual Li-Ion and Li-S demonstrator system. Design and development of a test bench to test the selected semiconductors and to define final requirements of the DC/DC converter.
•Execution and evaluation of 2nd life testing of aged LTO cells tested against photovoltaic (PV) profile for energy storage.
•Evaluation of safety, technical, economic, social, and environmental impacts of reuse and repurpose of the GHOST Basic Unit.
•Validation of the GHOST BS at lab level: mechanical pre-tests with two non-functional BS (Dummy System), several tests under mechanical, thermal, and electrical load at the MAST (Fraunhofer Lbf).
MAIN RESULTS:
GHOST Basic Unit Demonstrator in Public Event.
•Final Event held in December 2021.
•Demo vehicles: a 400V P-HEV vehicle (Fiat 500X), tested on private track and dyno (WLTP and RDE), a 800V BEV with ultra-fast charge, tested at test bench level.
•All BSs were assembled, enabling Labs testing in Fraunhofer and demo vehicles integration (PHEV and BEV) and testing.
•Development of a robust lifetime model based on a semi empirical methodology, based on 2-year long test lifetime testing started in March 2019, to predicts the SOH and remaining useful life of the BS.
•The prototyping and assessment of the dual Li-ion and Li-S battery module system were completed while using EIS to estimate cell temperature.
•Business model analysis for reuse and recycling in Europe.
•Results can be exploited by vehicle manufacturers (specific application for clean and sustainable mobility, manufacturing cost reduction), suppliers and services providers (know-how to improve the product portfolio), industry and research organization (expertise to improve end-of-life knowledge and design capability), academic partners (scientific exploitation of GHOST results).
•Exploitation and dissemination activities: participation in 35+ events and lectures, 14 technical publications, 1 public workshop, 1 final event, 6 newsletters, 1 patent registered proceeding from GHOST’s research and innovation.
• A modular battery pack architecture will be developed which can be easily scaled up to 400-800 V exploiting commonalities in the mechanical connections and taking into account the dismantling and recycling aspects (reduction of integration cost and time); BS reliability and safety will be enhanced through complete re-design with fewer external and internal connections, cabling, and components and via novel thermal-management architectures and strategies to guarantee insulation protection with battery state functions to detect possible failure mechanisms;
• The weight of the BS will be significantly reduced by using novel materials at module level, replacing bulky and heavy housings used in current conventional BS with reliable and functionalized lightweight materials, enabling higher specific energies of the complete BS;
• Thermal management of the BS will be optimised via novel module level solutions with advanced thermal concepts, with adaptive and smart control of the cooling circuit also for bus and future BEVs fast charging (up to 350-450 kW);
• Intelligent, integrated and simplified sensing and communications with high reliability will be developed and validated;
• Novel Dual-Cell-Battery architecture concept will be developed for next generation BS comprising high-power battery and next generation high-energy battery technologies with advanced DC/DC converter using newest semiconductors technologies and demonstrated at the lab. level (TRL 4);
The innovative BS solutions developed within the project will be demonstrated both at lab. level (TRL 5) and in two demonstrator vehicles.
The solutions developed within the project should have a strong impact on increasing the performance (including range and related battery lifetime and reliability) of electrically chargeable vehicles at affordable cost, aiming for first market introduction from 2024.
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