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Cutting Crime Impact – Practice-based innovation in preventing, investigating and mitigating high-impact petty crime

Periodic Reporting for period 1 - CCI (Cutting Crime Impact – Practice-based innovation in preventing, investigating and mitigating high-impact petty crime)

Reporting period: 2018-10-01 to 2020-03-31

THE PROBLEM
Cutting Crime Impact (CCI) addresses high-impact ‘petty crime’—non-organised crimes against persons and property that take place in towns and cities. Such crimes include: physical and sexual assault; robbery; burglary; and vandalism. Petty crime has a significant negative impact on European citizens’ quality of life, community cohesion and the safety and security of the urban environment. Those from deprived neighbourhoods and vulnerable groups are most seriously affected. In some instances, petty crime is linked to radicalisation and organised crime.

Prevention is the optimum approach for reducing harm, resulting in fewer victims of crime, fewer individuals introduced to offending behaviour and less demand on criminal justice systems—especially Law Enforcement Agencies (LEAs)—and other public authorities. Integrating prevention into practice can nevertheless be a challenge for practitioners faced with urgent demands on their time, competing priorities and resource limitations.

OBJECTIVES
1. To enable LEAs and security policymakers to adopt a preventative, evidence-based and sustainable approach to tackling high-impact petty crime, through development and implementation of Toolkits tailored to their needs

2. To enable LEAs and relevant security policymakers to advance knowledge and practice across key responsibilities and operations. Toolkits will be developed, promoting: (i) predictive policing; (ii) community policing; (iii) crime prevention through urban design and planning; and (iv) measuring and mitigating citizens’ feelings of insecurity.

3. To demonstrate the value of a practitioner-led approach to innovation in solution development. Using innovation methods and tools from the design industry, CCI will support LEA practitioners and end users in requirements capture, problem framing, ideation, concept generation, solution design and prototyping.

4. To encourage wider EU adoption of effective approaches to safety and security, and will therefore develop an extended European Security Model that includes high-impact petty crime and citizens’ feelings of insecurity.
WP1: Consortium integration and innovation management
Innovative content for Toolkits is being developed by engaging in a creative ideation, concept generation and design development process within a DesignLab — a comprehensive series of collaborative workshop activities designed by USAL. The CCI DesignLab is a three-hour workshop to generate design ideas based on an understanding of the specific LEA context and the issues / problems it is facing. Concentrating on a CCI focus area, each DesignLab helped generate ideas /solution concepts relevant to two LEAs, who acted as the ‘client’ in the design process.

WP2: Review of relevant tools in current practice and 'what works'
To ensure CCI builds on knowledge from EU-funded security research projects, EFUS led a review of EU-funded projects from the security research programme. The report' (D2.1) highlights barriers to toolkit implementation, including: lack of involvement of end-users in projects; limited requirements capture research; and a focus on technology-led outcomes for use by a wide range of stakeholders — rather than by a specific target user group.

There is a wealth of literature relevant to the CCI four areas that might inform PIM Toolkit content and guide Toolkit development. The literature was reviewed and presented in reports on the state of the art for the four CCI focus areas (D2.3–2.7). The results were developed into Factsheets for a wider network of security policymakers and LEA practitioners.

WP3: Enabling requirements capture for partner LEA context
Understanding end user needs and context is the foundation of successful new product development. CCI devoted effort to understanding the needs and context of the six LEA partners and relevant stakeholders (incl. security policymakers, local authorities, planners, architects and community representatives). CCI Requirements Capture methods cards summarising different methods were developed to support LEAs.

WP4–WP6: Development of PIM Toolkit 1–3
Each LEA undertook an intensive process of requirements capture (RC) research to understand their needs and context. USAL supported LEA partners in conducting RC and complying with research ethics. The results of the RC were summarised in a confidential report and presented at a DesignLab. The DesignLab was used to understand and frame the problem, as well as generate ideas. USAL reviewed the resulting ideas, identifying a number of ‘Concept Directions’. LEAs selected one Concept Direction for development into a Toolkit Specification and PowerPoint presentation. Six LEA tools have been detailed to date. Two further tools will be developed in WP7. Tools will be prototyped, refined and demonstrated in WP8 (project period 2).

WP7: Measuring and mitigating citizens feelings of insecurity
Due to ambiguities identified in the concept of ‘fear of crime’, USAL developed a new model to better operationalise the different aspects of worry, anxiety, and fear experienced by citizens.
HUMAN-CENTRED APPROACH
Within the European Security Research Programme, CCI is unique in its use of human-centred design methods and approaches to support LEAs and security policymakers in developing toolkits tailored to their specific needs and context. CCI focuses on the human participants within a designed ‘system’ and expends considerable effort on understanding: the nature of people’s roles; how those roles can be supported; how people’s needs can be met; and the context in which people operate.

CCI partner LEAs have been trained in requirements capture to enable them to develop an evidence-based, insight-informed approach to problem-framing and identification. Furthermore, they have been guided through a structured process of critical analysis, problem framing and solution generation (the CCI DesignLab) in each of the CCI focus areas. Using innovation methods and tools from the design industry, CCI has supported LEA practitioners and end users in issue mapping, problem framing, ideation, concept generation, solution design and prototyping.

TOOL CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT
The LEA partners have produced Toolkit Specifications—written documents detailing the concept design solution, the end users, how the tool will function, and next steps with regard to development, prototyping and demonstration work. Toolkits are being developed to support: (i) predictive policing; (ii) community policing; (iii) crime prevention through urban design and planning; and (iv) measuring and mitigating citizens’ feelings of insecurity. All toolkits will be demonstrated in an operational setting to assess performance, and materials developed to support integration into LEA operations and foster wider implementation. Practical consideration of ethical, legal and social issues throughout the project's research and innovation activities are ensuring developed Toolkits help promote safe and secure towns and cities, without compromising fundamental human rights.

IMPACT TO DATE
CCI has resulted in greater openness to innovation and design approaches amongst LEA and security policymakers partners, demonstrating the value of practitioner-led approaches to EU-funded research and innovation projects. Reviews of the state-of-the-art on four of the CCI focus areas have advanced knowledge of CCI partners.
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