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WAVe Resource for Electrical Production

Periodic Reporting for period 1 - WAVREP (WAVe Resource for Electrical Production)

Reporting period: 2018-05-01 to 2020-04-30

"The problem addressed is the acceleration of wave energy converters deployments by a ""resource-to-production"" optimization approach, that ensures higher energy production and reduction in Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCoE). To date, main considerations for deployments of wave energy are high energy regions. However, such regions are associated with high extreme potential and necessity for increased capital expenditure to ensure survival of the device. In addition, majority of coastlines is exposed to milder water that are often overlooked, leaving a big gap in the potential for development and acceleration of wave energy converters (WECs).

Resolving this issue is of high importance and will have numerous positive benefits. Wave energy is vast untapped renewable energy resource, with higher energy density than wind and solar even at milder resource regions. Accelerating the application of WECs will lead to higher renewable energy generation, helping us to achieve the Paris 2015 Climate Accord and significantly decarbonize current energy systems. Multi-generation and use of all indigenous resources increases system resilience, reduces fossil fuels dependency and external imports. Wave energy can prompt the revitalization of small coastal communities by boosting local employment and increase EU job growth. The benefits from the development of a wave energy European industry will strengthen the export and technical capabilities, allowing for multiple levels of necessary jobs employed and contribute towards a sustainable future. Finally, the contribution of wave energy converters, as viable energy projects, will allow the reduction of variability that is a long-time problem of renewable production. This allows for the reduction of harmful Green-House-Gas (GHG) and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions, hence improving the environmental footprint of our societies and contributing to cleaner water and air.

The overall objective is to prove that a wave energy converter (WEC) are suitable at milder regions, and that if a correct methodology of development is followed, it will attain high energy production and can reduce LCoE due to lowered probabilities of harsh events. This main objective also will deliver additional sub-components that will address how to characterize the long-term wave energy resource, and identify suitable areas considering spatial technical, and environmental restrictions for WEC farms. How to optimally develop and deploy WEC farms based on dominant metocean conditions, and under the spatio-technical restrictions. Focus is also given to coastal communities at moderate resources, where the project assesses ""true"" cost of LCoE and quantifies the benefits."
Work under the WAVREP project can be divided into 3 distinct sections (i) climate analysis and numerical modelling optimization (ii) wave resource quantification and energy potential analysis (iii) Economic uncertainty reduction and LCOE optimization.

The first section of WAVREP focused on optimisation of a spectral numerical model and the reduction of uncertainties in climate wave modelling. In the first part a spectral model was configured tuned for the North Sea region is presented with a thorough calibration and comparison with in-situ measurements. The parametrisations assess the performance of a new set of equations, which affect wind generation and whitecaps. The parameters have a direct effect on uncertainty reduction and minimization of biases, for other regions as well.
Following the optimal calibration and validation an open source metocean database is developed the North Sea Wave Database (NSWD) that provides high resolution information and has a long-term duration from 1980 to 2017 (end of 2017, 38 years). With NSWD second section estimated spatial distributions, expected variation, wave power and accessibility levels on wave climate analysis, extreme value analysis, the emerging wave energy industry, offshore wind and any offshore activity.
WAVREP also developed a novel index for an un-biased near deterministic unbiased methodology called Selection Index for Wave Energy Deployments (SIWED), providing unbiased information, assessing available WECs, metocean condition variability, and extreme events, engulfing all elements necessary not only for highest energy production, but also consistency and enhanced survivability considerations.
Third component is the reduction of economic uncertainty and assessment of LCoE reduction from utilizing SIWED to find the optimal WEC and region of applicability. In terms of LCoE most studies so far classified the North Sea and other moderate resource as non-viable, however, WAVREP result clearly shows that by utilizing a comprehensive methodology, LCOE can attain low value as 60 Euro/MWh.

The results from WAVREP have been disseminated and communicated at several international scientific outlets, and have also been disseminated with governmental organizations. A dedicated project website is part of the Fellow’s Research Gate account were all of the associated publications can be found at
The Fellow initiated collaborations with several organizations, being part of the Policy Task Force in the Marie Curie Alumni Association (MCAA) and have been contributing in white papers provided to policy makers. The Fellow also contributed to the development of energy policy strategy in the Netherlands by collaborating with the Dutch Marine Energy Centre (DMEC).
The results have a positive contribution on the development, selection, methodologies and economics for wave energy converters. Firstly, a free open source high spatio-temporal resolution database (NSWD) for 38 years have been developed. This is the first time such an endeavour has been undertaken for the North Sea.
The long-term metocean condition will be used to enhance the expected performance of wave energy converters (WEC), to date majority of estimations are based on non-long data, short term spectra, and non-realistic depths. With a detail climate analysis and wave statistics, the data will be used to match “production-to-resource”, therefore increasing the availability and the capacity factor.
The SIWED index can unbiasely determine the best WEC and assist in the redesign of its characteristics. The Index has shown that WEC can have CF ≥ 25%, which is often considered as the energy performance for deployments and is comparable with other mature renewables. WAVREP provides an open source energy database that can be used after the project conclusion.
Economic benefits are the increase in renewable energy production and hence the reduction of the Levelised Cost of Electricity (LCoE), which makes the WEC more competitive against fossil fuels. The project also has environmental benefits, SIWED give the optimal combination of WEC farms to every region reducing emission by fossil power plants and contribute positively in climate protection. NWSD and WAVREP provides a thorough and comprehensive roadmap of locations suitable for wave energy. These can also be used to estimate the avoided emissions, and local employment opportunities that WECs can offer, which are quantified to approximately 10 jobs/MW.
Consideration for the development of wave energy