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QUAntum nanophotonics in Rolled-Up Metamaterials

Periodic Reporting for period 3 - aQUARiUM (QUAntum nanophotonics in Rolled-Up Metamaterials)

Reporting period: 2022-01-01 to 2023-06-30

The development of photonic technologies has gained a prominent position in our daily life from communication to medicine. In order to harness and process light at the single-photon level requires the implementation of quantum physics to the photonics applications. However, the interaction of light with single quantum systems under ambient conditions is typically very weak and difficult to control. Furthermore, there are quantum phenomena occurring in the matter at nanometer length scales that are currently not well understood. These deficiencies have a direct and severe impact on creating a bridge between quantum physics and photonic device technologies.
The project aQUARiUM precisely addresses the issue of controlling and operating in normal conditions while enhancing efficiency. For this, we create a medium with special properties. The medium inside these specially designed and obtained micro- tubes acts as an index near zero medium, so they provide the needed environment for quantum networks. There is no need for precise control or low temperatures anymore. This may lead to long-distance networks for quantum computers and the internet.
Overall, the project aims to have a significant impact on quantum photonic device technologies as it aims to provide a wholly new photonic platform applicable across a diverse range of areas. This project addresses some of the most promising concepts and applications of quantum nanophotonics, which opens up new ways and possibilities to revolutionize the technology.
During the reporting period of the project, we designed rolled-up epsilon (permittivity)-near-zero (ENZ) metamaterials using numerical and analytical platforms. We theoretically defined a quantum emitter as a two-level system integrated inside this metamaterial and obtained the solution of their interaction with the incident photons. The results show that we can modify the range of interaction which is usually very short and obtained the quantum entanglement in a long-distance provided by the properties of this medium.
We have also progressed in the fabrication of the rolled-up nanotubes. We have optimized 3 different methods to obtain the rolled-up structures in different diameters and material compositions. These optimized methods provide us the fabrication of the rolled-up metamaterials for a different range of applications in the next steps of the project. One of the developed methods is the photoresist-based technique which enables the fabrication of metasurface formed by nanohole arrays on gold (Au) and silicon dioxide (SiO2) rolled-up microtubes. These structures added a new characteristic to the metasurfaces that use the advantage of a self-rolling mechanism to reduce the fabrication steps of a multilayered structure and effectively controls the optical field in contrast to a planar metasurface. Another key result obtained in this study is the usage of the resist as a sacrificial layer. This yields a cost-effective, fast, and easy method to obtain rolled-up tubes that can be utilized in different metasurface-based applications.
Finally, we have installed and obtained the initial test results of the experimental setups which will be used for the characterization of the structures.
With the results obtained in this project, we challenge the knowledge on the interaction range of qubits (quantum emitters) and redefine the light-matter interaction range engineering the optical properties of the medium. Another beyond the state of the art progress has been achieved on the fabrication of such mediums. We obtained a cost-effective, fast, and easy method which also allows the integration of the quantum emitters.
Based on these results, we expect to obtain a novel technological component and a new practical technological platform based in this component for quantum nanophotonic applications such as novel light sources and long-term entanglement generation.
Rolled-Up Metamaterials