Among natural archives, ice cores have a special advantage to evaluate historical variations and distinguish natural-anthropogenic sources because ice core has a relatively simple matrix and can supply higher temporal resolution. Many laboratories have devoted a large amount of resources to ice core research and achieved excellent results. However, construction of historic records with source apportionment of metal pollutants for the whole Holocene period from a single ice core has not been done yet due to limitation of technical difficulties and high cost in the previous years. In this project, it is aimed to reconstruct archives and reveal the probable source-of-region(s) and historical variations of Pb and/or Cd from Canadian Arctic ice cores. For this purpose, a series of experiments have been devised with the goal of accurately quantifying the relative contributions of lithogenic and anthropogenic source(s) of Pb and Cd deposited during modern, historical and pre-historical time periods. On accomplishing this project, the following objectives are expected: 1.Archive construction of Pb and Cd for the Holocene period from Devon Ice Cap in the Canadian High Arctic; 2. Retrieval of a possible source-of-region Pb profile for the same time period and from the s ame ice cores with varieties of resolutions; 3. To retrieve a profile(s) of Sc and/or REEs, which could be used for better distinguishing natural source from anthropogenic sources and possibly constructing climate change trend based on climate severity since Holocene; and 4. To develop methodologies and procedures for routinely and precisely but economically analysing Pb isotopes (not including Pb-204), and conservative elements such as Sc and REEs at ultra-low level (pg/g to fg/g level) in snow/ice core samples. The achievement from this project will supply ecologists, modellers and policy makers with more reliable and precise information of the two toxic metals in the environment.
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