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Reporting period: 2020-11-01 to 2022-04-30

Shipping represents the largest global cargo transport means, serving more than 80% of total freight transport. While vessels exhibit comparatively low fuel consumption per unit of cargo-distance, they produce high emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulphur oxides (SOx) and particulate matter (PM), which induce severe environmental, health, economic and climatic impacts. Most of these emissions occur rather close to the shore and, thus, significantly degrade air quality (AQ) in coastal areas. NOx, SOx and PM exposures from shipping have been associated with an increase in morbidity and premature mortality rates. Several studies using atmospheric chemistry models, field experiments in shipping lanes, measurements on ship plumes, on-board measurements and land-based observations of ship plumes, have showed that marine exhaust may be responsible for 20-30% of ambient NO2 and similar fractions of nitrate and sulphate PM over the southern North Sea coast.
To address the many and largely unexplored problems related to vessels emissions monitoring, SCIPPER has deployed state-of-the-art and next-generation measurement techniques to monitor emissions of vessels during their regular service. Different measurement techniques have been deployed in five real-world campaigns over main shipping areas in the EU. Together with SOx and NOx, which constitute the current regulatory priorities, techniques to characterize PM, including ultrafine particles and black carbon (BC), have also been employed.
Thus, the overall objectives of SCIPPER have been to:
• provide evidence on the performance and capacity of different techniques for shipping emissions monitoring;
• assess the impact of shipping emissions on AQ, under different regulatory enforcement scenarios.
The work performed since the beginning of SCIPPER project can be summarised to the following points:

• Realization of 4 out of 5 SCIPPER measurement campaigns, i.e. C1 in Marseille (FR) before the introduction of global fuel sulfur cap (FSC) in 9.2019 and C4 in 7.2021 C3 in Wedel (DE) in 9-10.2020 C2 on-board campaign from Gothenburg (SE) to Kiel (DE) in 8-9. 2021.
• Identification of sulfur levels in the Med shipping before and after the introduction of the global FSC.
• Review and assessment of available remote systems for ship emission measurements (incl. stationary sniffers, airborne sniffers, and optical remote).
• Review and assessment of the state of art in ship plume modelling, including pollutants transformation during plume dispersion, identify advantages and disadvantages of Lagrangian and Eulerian approaches, providing recommendations for SCIPPER air-quality modeling activities incl. model development with aerosol dynamics.
• Development of the methodology for comprehensive physicochemical characterization of ship plume - onshore emission measurements in the port of Marseille in July 2020.
• Development and testing of a new ultra-sensitive SO2 sniffer, built by a commercial quantum cascade laser spectrometer, integrated with AIS and a wind sensor.
• Development and testing of a low-cost sensor box for gaseous pollutants detection on-board vessels.
• Testing of a new Optoacoustic sensor for the measurement of black carbon and NO2 on-board vessels.
• Testing of emissions data transmission process utilizing on-board emission data transmission format and S-AIS integration with sensors.
• Development of the Environmental Monitoring Center, a platform that acts as the infrastructure for visualisation and fusion of processed sensor data (on-board, on-shore and satellite) and AIS ship data to enable ship spotting and monitoring.
• Development of a consistent method for reporting SOx, NOx and PM emissions of the different remote measurement techniques.
• Validation of satellite observations for ship emissions monitoring with in-situ monitoring techniques.
• Continue the long-term data collection from fixed monitoring stations.
• Revision and validation of existing emission inventories (updated emission factors, updated method for LNG engines and methane slip, modelling of ammonia, methanol auxiliary machinery) and performance of coastal-scale AQ modelling.
• Review of current shipping emissions enforcement regulations and existing and emerging enforcement methods, and identification of gaps and loopholes.
• Organization of a stakeholder event at the beginning of the project in Brussels in 2019 and one online stakeholders’ workshop in 2021.
• Prepared 9 open access publications in peer-reviewed journals.
• Participation in 27 conferences, workshops, webinars, exhibitions, etc.
• Creation of SCIPPER website ( social media accounts (LinkedIn-SCIPPER Project, Facebook-The Scipper project, Twitter-The SCIPPER Project, YouTube-SCIPPER Project).
The major objectives that have been partly reached in this period and are expected to fully materialize at the end of the project include:
• Development of a remote monitoring toolbox to allow sensitive sulphur compliance monitoring together with the measurement of NOx and PM. Establishment of a method for consistent reporting of compliance results and their uncertainty from different monitoring techniques.
• Potential of satellite observations for ship emissions monitoring, including a simple algorithmic formulation for estimating ship emissions based on high-resolution satellite NO2 data.
• Enhancement of air quality simulation tools to be able to accurately assess the impact of shipping on urban and coastal air pollution and, subsequently, on people’s health by building and calibrating a shipping plume ageing simulation module which will be integrated in available AQ models.

Thus, all experimental and modelling activities of the project will:
• Support the enforcement of existing and upcoming sulphur, NOx and other -future- air pollutants regulations for vessels.
• Identify gaps in regulations that may lead to higher than expected emissions (e.g. if NOx aftertreatment is not operational).
• Deliver an assessment of current environmental compliance and corresponding contribution of shipping to air pollution, on which to base recommendations for further policy action.
• Assess AQ health impacts and associated external costs by estimating relevant exposure rates under the different compliance scenarios in different regions (port, urban areas, coastal areas, mainland) and different abatement technologies.
• Quantify the environmental and health impacts of varying degrees of regulatory compliance on future emissions for selected test cases.
• Contribute to EU pioneering at an international level regarding shipping emissions understanding, monitoring and regulatory enforcement.
• Serve the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDG), especially Goal 3 on healthy living for all and Goal 11 on sustainable cities, but also other SDGs related to climate and biodiversity (Goals 13-15).