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Multi-layered Security technologies to ensure hyper connected smart cities with Blockchain, BigData, Cloud and IoT

Periodic Reporting for period 3 - M-Sec (Multi-layered Security technologies to ensure hyper connected smart cities with Blockchain, BigData, Cloud and IoT)

Reporting period: 2020-07-01 to 2021-09-30

State-of-the-art IoT systems in Smart cities tends to be build around the concept of IoT/Cloud convergence, which foresees the integration of heteregenous data streams within one or more cloud infrastructures. This wave of IoT/cloud systems enables IoT systems to benefit from the scalability, performance and capacity of the cloud, which has been proven very efficient for certain classes of IoT applications. Nevertheless, these architectures promote a centralized data collection and processing approach, which introduces several limitations both in terms of the supported applications and in terms of the business models that they enable. Moreover, in modern smart city applications there is an emerging need of end-to-end security since many data sources may contain sensitive information that raises issue on privacy and data protection. T With the aim of providing end-to-end security and privacy, M-Sec major goal is to to research, develop, deploy and demonstrate multi-layered Security technologies to ensure hyper connected smart cities and empower IoT stakeholders with an innovative platform which leverages blockchain, BigData, Cloud and IoT security, upon which they can build innovative smart city applications. The project will explore secure, interoperable interactions between IoT elements based on a holistic secured cloud/edge/IoT context within a future smart city. Overall, the M-Sec paradigm will complement mainstream IoT/cloud technologies, through enabling the introduction and implementation of specific classes of applications and services, which are not efficiently supported by state-of-the-art architectures.

The individual Scientific and Technical objectives of the M-Sec project are:
1) To design the future decentralized architecture of IoT.
2) To enable seamless and highly autonomous and secure interaction between humans and devices in the context of a smart city.
3) To engineer new levels of security and trust in large scale autonomous and trust-less multipurpose smart city platforms and integrate privacy enhancing technologies (PETs) at the design level of M-Sec's architecture.
4) To create reference implementations of future decentralized IoT ecosystems and validate their viability and sustainability.
5) To maximize the impact of the project benefits.
The project is organized into five main work packages combining the necessary partners and expertise for assuring successful execution and impact in the Europe-Japan level. On the one site, three project implementation work-packages are focused on the analysis and definition of the M-Sec framework, implementation and methodologies as well as the evaluation of the overall approach with respect to the selected use cases and pilots to be involved in the project. On the other site, two project horizontal work-packages related to communication, dissemination and exploitation, as well as, to the project and consortium management.

Significant results achieved during the length of the project:
- The consortium has completely elicitated the final requirements, risks and threats and consolidated them in a way that has facilitated the design of the overall M-Sec system.
- Furthermore, a layered overall view of the M-Sec Architecture as well as the suitability of this architecture with respect to the proposed smart city and marketplace capable platform was defined.
- Since M10, partners were working on the different security frameworks (IoT Security, Cloud and data level security, P2P level security and blockchain, application level security) to be integrated into a single platform.
- Final Prototypes were submitted in M33. From M18 up to M36, partners were working on the integration part to validate the framework through five different use cases.
- As outcome, M-Sec framework introduces tools for designing and validating secure applications and providing device-level security that protects IoT devices from malware through intrusion detection mechanisms and vulnerability detection systems, including a secure element to handle the integrity of the device during the boot process and the authentication and encryption for external communication channels. It entails data security where sensitive data is encrypted together with a hash. Thanks to the M-Sec Blockchain and Middleware, the synergy between on-chain and off-chain data and access control becomes possible. Finally, M-Sec expands this security support to end-to-end.
- In order to validate the infrastructure developed, the consortium has conducted several pilots in two iterative phases thanks to two important European and Japanese cities on board, Fujisawa and Santander, each recognized having already developed a long-term “smart city” approach.

Dissemination and exploitation activities have been running since the project started and have been crucial for the success of the project’s progress. Overall, the dissemination and communication activities of the M-Sec project during its 3 year’s implementation showed good process, generated a relevant impact for the project’s results and achievements at a more technical level and promoted positive feedback from its target stakeholders and main players. In terms of exploitation, M-Sec follows a Freemium approach. In addition, all components will be sustain for an additional period of 12 months after the project conclusion to guarantee the exploitation.

Finally, Project and Innovation Management has been crucial for thee succeed on the project's progress, ensuring a proper co-ordination across tasks and partner and risk monitorization.
The M-Sec project delivers a set of concrete and added value main results. These are:
- M-Sec distributed, robust and trusted smart city platforms based on IoT, cloud, Big Data and blockchain technologies.
- M-Sec IoT marketplace: An innovative and open IoT market of applications, data and services.
- M-Sec smart city ecosystem: a sustainable ecosystem of stakeholders, roles, tools and infrastructures upon which new entrants (e.g. startups, SMEs) and other players (e.g. developer communities, students, entrepreneurs) can build and experiment with the hyper-connected smart city applications.
- Revenue model and replication plan

The M-Sec provides a disruptive innovation on how people and machines are going to use the IoT infrastructures. This is going to have a multiple impact in areas such as smart cities, smart buildings, utilities, industry etc. M-Sec democratizes access to IoT infrastructure and lower the barrier to new players to get on board of the smart cities value chain. This contributes to technological literacy, social inclusion and increase participation in economic and social affairs in general. Young people have great, innovative ideas but frequently struggle with setting up a successful and sustainable business on top of IoT infrastructure due to the fact that these infrastructures are mainly ruled by single entities (whether they are big vendors or public authorities). M-Sec will tackle these problems. Its platform, APIs, demonstrators, and ecosystem will be secure and open increasing thus the social participation of more people into it.
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