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Novel building Integration Designs for increased Efficiencies in Advanced Climatically Tunable Renewable Energy Systems

Periodic Reporting for period 1 - IDEAS (Novel building Integration Designs for increased Efficiencies in Advanced Climatically Tunable Renewable Energy Systems)

Reporting period: 2019-05-01 to 2020-10-31

The IDEAS project is creating an innovative building integrated renewable energy system (RES) which will cost effectively exceed current RES efficiencies, generating electricity, heat and cooling and optimised for multifamily, public and commercial buildings in different climatic conditions. The research aim is to create a novel building integrated RES maximizing the output tuneable for different climatic conditions through novel luminescent and geometric concentrator techniques leading to current solar system efficiencies being exceeded electrically. Thermally enhancement will be achieved using enhanced organic phase change materials (PCM) with a passive biomimetic heat transfer mechanism for heat storage and discharge. An electrically driven multi-source heat pumpHP system will then use the main energy sources at building scale (waste heat from the system, air and ground), to provide the input to an integrated underfloor heating and hot water system, and to manage the thermal energy storage. This building integrated RES will use advanced control techniques to maximize performance and electrical and thermal/cooling self-sufficiency in the building. The technology will be optimized and demonstrated for use in multi-family residential buildings, commercial and public buildings
In WP1 a range of luminescent species and nanoparticles were synthesised and a model has been developed for the optimum LDS layer. Characterisation and fabrication of these layers have been completed. A model has been developed to design and optimise CPC geometries. Four systems were fabricated (two with LDS layers) and sent to UNIFE (Feb 2020). Performance issues were found when delivered and COVID-19 restricted TCD travelling to complete the fixes. To support WP3's small-scale system, commercial PV/T panels were sourced and installed to reduce delays. In WP2, a PCM review was completed to determine the influence on heat exchanger design and system operation. Nanoparticle addition, encapsulation and the use of porous matrices were also reviewed. Experimental analysis was completed for the enhancement of PCM mixture thermal conductivity for the ground application (GHE). Biomimetic concepts have been investigated to enhance the thermal conductivity of PCM and a model has been developed to aid with system design. A small prototype has been developed and fabricated for testing and three biomimetic PVT systems have been designed. However due to COVID-19 it was not possible to upscale and send to Ferrara due to UU lab restrictions. WP2 worked with WP1 and WP3 and agreed to use a commercial PVT with PCM heat exchangers be installed in Ferrara for testing. In WP3, intra-day/season thermal energy storage (ITES) functionality has been designed at different scales at building and daily scale, as radiant floor enhanced with PCMs containers filled with hydrated salts which have two different melting points to operate in cooling mode (S21, 21°C) and heating mode (S27, 27°C); at source side and daily, as thermal solar exploitation is carried out by the exploitation of the PV/T panels enhanced with PCMs and at source side and seasonal scale, as ground thermal exploitation carried out by novel and patented horizontal ground heat exchangers powered with different types of PCMs, which melt at two different temperatures to support the plant in heating and cooling. For the installation of the small-scale UNIFE plant, the plant and everything needed for building the prototype was designed. Due to COVID all activities onsite slowed. While delays occurred the small-scale plant began operation in August 2020, UNIFE/CFR and other partners worked hard to ensure summer monitoring. WP4 focused on the design, development of control system for the integrated IDEAS system as well as its implementation in the small-scale demo site in Ferrara, Italy. An optimised, demand side management system (DSM) enabled, operation of an integrated multi-carrier energy system was developed creating a multi-criteria RES/storage planning tool. A DSM enabled operation optimisation strategy was completed. This provided the fundamentals of the modelling required to represent individual components of the IDEAS system in a software environment suitable for optimising its operational performance. Most of the design, development and implementation work has been delivered. WP5 is the demonstration of the IDEAS technologies and focuses on the integration of components into the building services, particularly the utilisation of the heat/cold storage in the phase change materials. The small-scale installation has been completed in UNIFE. Work has commenced on a new building to act as a demonstration unit. WP6 is based on user engagement and has undertaken a desk analysisand through a user-driven participatory approach focus groups were set up (technicians, installers, architects, engineers, apartment block administrators and households). Further focus groups were planned but they have been replaced by an online survey. In WP7, a MatLab Simulink model of the technical performance of the IDEAS concept has been developed in different types of buildings and climatic conditions. It considers the basic characteristics of the IDEAS components and implements an energy management system in order to satisfy electricity and heating & cooling user needs. Dissemination and exploitation of the results of the project has been through the IDEAS project website, newsletters have been created and social media platforms utilised.
IDEAS strongly contributes to the achievement of targets stated in the Energy Performance in Buildings Directive Recast (Directive 2010/31/EU)28 which was adopted by the EU Parliament and Council. Through IDEAS, an innovative building integrated component will be developed exceeding current RES efficiencies. Using IDEAS, CO2 emissions will be reduced aiding our global battle with climate change and as electrical energy will be generated at point of use, it will lead to reduced losses in distribution networks. IDEAS will develop an important zero carbon technology that is prioritised in the European SET-Plan, which established a strategic plan to accelerate the development and deployment of cost-effective low carbon technologies. The project specific objectives fully comply with the expected impacts which will be of benefit to many stakeholders such as property owners, RES installers, and planners, building contractors, engineers, communities, local authorities and government. IDEAS will have a strong impact in terms of energy and economic savings, boosting the application of sustainable and energy efficient solutions to the construction sector and promoting both standard and deep retrofit renovation. The benefits deriving from the project will be perceived at different levels:
Society and environment: Climate change remains as one of the most serious threats facing humanity, and the development of technologies developed in this project will support the EU meeting its legally binding Carbon Budgets and emission goals. Ultimately, consumers will benefit from lower embedded carbon buildings, which are cheaper to maintain because of lower fuel consumption.
Government and policy makers: These beneficiaries need viable solutions for mitigating CO2 emissions in a cost effective manner whilst safeguarding energy security, construction competitiveness and renewable energy manufacturing productivity.
IDEAS project technical concept