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Integrated Quantum Clock

Deliverables

Risk management and quality assurance plan

To manage and support the project Quality Control, a documented Quality Assurance Plan will be set up and maintained to monitor all deliverables before finalising them. The deliverable also contains a detailed risk analysis and contingency planning as well as a description of the risk management procedures throughout the project lifetime.

Article on compact beam source

Design, construction and benchmarking of a compact, high-flux Sr beam source. Two approaches with different degree of risk and expected atom flux will be pursued. The low-risk approach is a miniaturized version of the existing UvA apparatus, which is expected to deliver a cold-atom flux of >108 88Sr/s. The higher-risk approach will use a heated sapphire Sr vapour cell [Sek17] inside a vacuum chamber to create a 2D MOT source with an estimated flux of >108 88Sr/s. A PD from UoB will be seconded to UvA and contribute know-how on integration. The testbed of T4.3 will be used for benchmarking the source.

Summary report on the characteristics and performance of the field-deployable clock

Summary report on the characteristics and performance of the integrated fielddeployable clock

Progress report on relevant real-life effects

We will characterise the important real-life effects for superradiant lasers on the 7.4-kHz 1S0-3P1 (WP4) and on the mHz 1S0-3P0 (WP5) transitions in Sr, as well as for cavity-enhanced spectroscopy for the second physical package of WP3. We will study these effects separately, investigate their physical role, and develop relevant computational methods to treat them.

Article on continuous optical frequency standard

Amsterdam and UMK will combine the beam preparation scheme from Tasks 44 and 53 with the UMK superradiant laser scheme from Task 54 into one true continuous optical frequency standard using the Sr 1S03P0 clock line TUW with UIBK will help with interpretation of the data and further optimization of operational parameters We will ship the vacuum chamber build in Task 52 to Torun and perform this experiment there which will give us access to stateoftheart Sr clocks as benchmarking references NKT Photonics will develop the required lownoise reference laser source

Summary report on superradiant lasers' novel implementations

This task targets the characterisation of new implementations of superradiant lasers in pulsed or CW operation We plan to simulate novel implementation geometries with builtin repumping and cooling schemes to estimate their linewidth and power The models include dipoledipole interactions and collective level shifts

Summary report on the characteristics and performance of industry-provided components

Summary report on the characteristics and performance of industryprovided components of D32

Project handbook

To ensure a consistent implementation of the management of the project, UvA will produce a project procedure handbook that will be easily accessible to all Partners.

Detailed Dissemination and Engagement Plan

A detailed Dissemination and Engagement Plan will be composed.

Article on 87-Sr beam

We will demonstrate the production of dipole guided high phase-space density, high-brilliance beam of fermionic 87Sr. Such a beam would allow the construction of a superradiant laser without the need to apply a homogeneous magnetic field in the cavity. For 88Sr the magnetic field is needed to allow the clock transition, whereas in 87Sr the transition is allowed by hyperfine mixing. This task requires adding a second frequency component to all red MOT laser beams.

Simulation framework for transverse cooling and pumping

We will study theoretically different techniques of cooling and repumping of the atoms delivered into the cavity and develop methods of numerical simulation of these processes

First Dissemination report

Halfway the project the first dissemination report will be written

Technical article on continuous optical frequency standard apparatus

Amsterdam and UMK will combine the beam preparation scheme from Tasks 44 and 53 with the UMK superradiant laser scheme from Task 54 into one true continuous optical frequency standard using the Sr 1S03P0 clock line TUW with UIBK will help with interpretation of the data and further optimization of operational parameters We will ship the vacuum chamber build in Task 52 to Torun and perform this experiment there which will give us access to stateoftheart Sr clocks as benchmarking references

Report on market study and exploitation plan

This task foresees a market study of the various applications of optical atomic clocks also with the perspective of beyond 10 years from now It will be complemented by a detailed exploitation plan

Summary report on quantitative computational models

Here we will build computational models aimed at quantitative simulations of cavityenhanced spectroscopy relevant for WP3 quasicontinuous superradiance on the 74 kHzline in a 3D MOT continuous atomic beam superradiant lasers on the 74kHz transition relevant for WP4 and superradiant clocks on mHz linewidth transitions with different continuous atom replenishment procedures relevant for WP5 These models will be used for the optimization of parameters of these systems within the relevant work packages In turn a comparison between theory and experiment allows us to improve our models and to detect important still unconsidered reallife effects

Summary report on relevant real-life effects

We will characterise the important reallife effects for superradiant lasers on the 74kHz 1S03P1 WP4 and on the mHz 1S03P0 WP5 transitions in Sr as well as for cavityenhanced spectroscopy for the second physical package of WP3 We will study these effects separately investigate their physical role and develop relevant computational methods to treat them

Progress report on superradiant lasers' novel implementations

Task 6.4 targets the characterisation of new implementations of superradiant lasers in pulsed or CW operation. We plan to simulate novel implementation geometries with built-in repumping and cooling schemes to estimate their linewidth and power. The models include dipole-dipole interactions and collective level shifts.

Summary report on the results of cavity-enhanced spectroscopy

Summary report on the results of cavityenhanced spectroscopy

Design of vacuum assembly

This clock will be based on combining the design of the compact beam source developed in T44 with a cavity The cavity design will be determined by combining knowhow from UvA UCPH and TUW

Article on continuous superradiance

Demonstration of continuous superradiance on the 74 kHz line using a mK temperature atomic beam This approach is based on a simple but large laboratory setup and warrants the development of a more compact source in Task 44

Article on MOT superradiance

Investigate quasicontinuous superradiance on the 74 kHz line from a Sr 3D MOT by repumping the atomic ensemble within the MOT lifetime First the system requirements and behaviour will be investigated for a singlestage mK MOT and subsequently for a twostage MOT at K temperatures This task will act as a forerunner of Tasks 42 and 4446 in order to identify unforeseen complications TUW will provide theoretical support with evaluation of threshold conditions estimation of the output power and optimization of the pumping regime and parameters of the MOT

Report on 88-Sr beam compatible with cavity

We will use the existing UvA apparatus (see Info Box 4) to demonstrate delivery of a high phase-space density, high-brilliance beam of 88Sr atoms in a dipole guide into a region that is protected from blue MOT straylight and sufficiently outside red MOT beams to allow placement of a cavity. This task requires reorienting the red MOT beams and shaping their intensity profiles. The new configuration will allow the placement of an aperture in between red MOT and the future cavity location, which would reduce red MOT stray light at the cavity location.

iqClock video

We will produce a video on the iqClock challenge and disseminate it on the iqClock website and YouTube.

Final Dissemination Report

At the project the final dissemination report will be written

Article benchmarking compact, continuous superradiant clock

The laser and control electronics infrastructure for the operation of the compact continuous superradiant clock at UCPH will be prepared The vacuum chamber constructed in T45 will be transported to UCPH TUW and UIBK will help with optimization of operational parameters in order to improve the spectral characteristic of the clocks and robustness of the output frequency with respect to fluctuations of the environmental parameters The clock will be benchmarked against the BNMSYRTE transportable reference cavity which will be on loan to UCPH

Components and modules for the industry-built, field-deployable optical lattice clock

This task is dedicated to the development and construction of the necessary modules and components which will eventually form the fielddeployable optical lattice clock with TRL 6 In order to achieve this objective P7 will provide the vacuum systems including interrogation chamber Zeeman slower and atom source P8 will contribute the necessary laser systems including the clock laser with transportable cavity and a frequency comb and P9 will develop and supply photonic crystal fibres for multicolour delivery P10 will interact with UoB and P7 to develop a custom solution for an inner coating of the interrogation chamber with largely reduced emissivity

Vacuum assembly

This clock will be based on combining the design of the compact beam source developed in T44 with a cavity The cavity design will be determined by combining knowhow from UvA UCPH and TUW A UCPH PhD student will build the clocks vacuum chamber including beam source and cavity under guidance from UvA

Optical lattice clock test setup

Optical lattice clock as test setup suitable for industry-provided components and modules as well as for cavity-assisted spectroscopy later on.

Design of continuous mHz-line clock apparatus

Using the beam source developed in Task 44 and under discussion with the QuantERA QClocks and EMPIR f17 USOQS participants UvA and UMK will design and build the apparatus suitable for replenishing atoms in continuous superradiant lasing This task involves adding the red MOT cooling stages to the beam source of Task 44 and implementing the laser systems to replenish atoms in the reservoir either the red MOT or an accumulation region in the dipole guide TUW will provide theoretical support with design of the cavity evaluation of threshold condition preliminary estimation of attainable power and linewidth of the superradiant laser for different variants of realization of the setup

Continuous mHez-line clock apparatus

Using the beam source developed in Task 44 and under discussion with the QuantERA QClocks and EMPIR f17 USOQS participants UvA and UMK will design and build the apparatus suitable for replenishing atoms in continuous superradiant lasing This task involves adding the red MOT cooling stages to the beam source of Task 44 and implementing the laser systems to replenish atoms in the reservoir either the red MOT or an accumulation region in the dipole guide TUW will provide theoretical support with design of the cavity evaluation of threshold condition preliminary estimation of attainable power and linewidth of the superradiant laser for different variants of realization of the setup The machine will be built such that several transfer options can be evaluated

Portable optical lattice clock assembled from the industry-provided components

The objective is the assembly of a fielddeployable Sr optical lattice clock by the integration of the vacuum system with all its components and related computer control provided by P7 the laser systems and frequency comb contributed by P9 and the use of the PCF systems developed by P8 Once all modules are integrated to form the transportable optical lattice clock the functionality of the clock will be verified A benchmark test of the fielddeployable clock will be performed with support from UMK to determine accuracy and stability of the fielddeployable clock

YouTube edutainment series

We will produce several short YouTube videos explaining clocks to young people the topics we can choose from are very rich history social impact old and modern technology applications of clocks a look behind the doors of a metrology lab Where is the time made

iqClock website

The website will be clear, informative, and constantly updated with news and upcoming events, to be used as a reference point for the project’s on-going activities. The website will also have a list of the scientific publications produced through the iqClock project as well as the published deliverables. It will be divided in two sections: a public area and an internal area for consortium purposes like document repository and collaborative workspace. The website will go live in M2 of the project, and be constantly updated.

Data Management Plan

iqClock will, in accordance with the EU policies on proper and responsible data management, set up a Data Management Plan (DMP), following the FAIR principles (Findable, Accessible, Interoperable and reusable) and the Horizon 2020 Pilot on Open Research Data.

Open-source software package as extension of QuantumOptics.jl

We will create extensions to the framework QuantumOpticsjl Kra17 dedicated to the simulation of superradiant lasers and phase response in cavityenhanced spectroscopy in the presence of relevant reallife effects investigated within Task 61 This will be a demonstrably userfriendly opensource software program that may be used by any interested physicist We will provide user support for members of the consortium Due to its userfriendliness the framework may also be used for building simulations and demonstrations for public outreach efforts

Publications

Polarization control of radiation and energy flow in dipole-coupled nanorings

Author(s): Cremer, J; Plankensteiner, D; Moreno-Cardoner, M; Ostermann, L; Ritsch, H
Published in: New Journal of Physics, Issue volume 22, August 2020, 2020, ISSN 1367-2630
Publisher: Institute of Physics Publishing
DOI: 10.1088/1367-2630/aba4d4

Transportable optical atomic clocks for use in out-of-the-lab environments

Author(s): Markus Gellesch; J. M. Jones; Richard Barron; Alok K. Singh; Qiushuo Sun; Kai Bongs; Yeshpal Singh
Published in: Advanced Optical Technologies, Issue Volume 9, issue 5, bimonthly, 2019, ISSN 2192-8584
Publisher: de Gruyter
DOI: 10.1515/aot-2020-0023

Continuous Bose-Einstein condensation

Author(s): Chen, Chun-Chia; Escudero, Rodrigo González; Minář, Jiří; Pasquiou, Benjamin; Bennetts, Shayne; Schreck, Florian
Published in: Nature, Issue not available yet, 2022, Page(s) not available yet, ISSN 0000-0000
Publisher: Springer Nature
DOI: 10.1038/s41586-022-04731-z

Driven electronic bridge processes via defect states in 229 Th-doped crystals

Author(s): Brenden Scott Nickerson; Martin Pimon; Pavlo V. Bilous; Johannes Gugler; Georgy A. Kazakov; Tomas Sikorsky; Kjeld Beeks; Andreas Grüneis; Thorsten Schumm; Adriana Pálffy; Adriana Pálffy
Published in: Physical Review A, Issue Vol. 103, Iss. 5 — May 2021, 2021, Page(s) 53120, ISSN 0000-0000
Publisher: American Physical Society
DOI: 10.1103/physreva.103.053120

Nanoscale Coherent Light Source

Author(s): Raphael Holzinger; David Plankensteiner; Laurin Ostermann; Helmut Ritsch
Published in: PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS, Issue Vol. 124, Iss. 25 — 26 June 2020, 2020, ISSN 0000-0000
Publisher: APS
DOI: 10.1103/physrevlett.124.253603

A steady-state magneto-optical trap of fermionic strontium on a narrow-line transition

Author(s): Rodrigo González Escudero, Chun-Chia Chen (陳俊嘉), Shayne Bennetts, Benjamin Pasquiou, and Florian Schreck
Published in: PRR, Issue 3, 2021, Page(s) 33159, ISSN 0000-0000
Publisher: American Physical Society

Cavity-immune spectral features in the pulsed superradiant crossover regime

Author(s): Mikkel Tang; Stefan A. Schäffer; Stefan A. Schäffer; Asbjørn A. Jørgensen; Martin R. Henriksen; Bjarke T. R. Christensen; Jörg H. Müller; Jan W. Thomsen
Published in: Physical Review Research, Issue 3, 2021, Page(s) 033258, ISSN 0000-0000
Publisher: APS
DOI: 10.1103/physrevresearch.3.033258

The potential and global outlook of integrated photonics for quantum technologies

Author(s): Emanuele Pelucchi, Giorgos Fagas, Igor Aharonovich, Dirk Englund, Eden Figueroa, Qihuang Gong, Hübel Hannes, Jin Liu, Chao-Yang Lu, Nobuyuki Matsuda, Jian-Wei Pan, Florian Schreck, Fabio Sciarrino, Christine Silberhorn, Jianwei Wang, Klaus D. Jöns
Published in: nature review physics, Issue 4, 2022, Page(s) 194-208, ISSN 0000-0000
Publisher: SpringerNature
DOI: 10.1038/s42254-021-00398-z

All-solid-state VUV frequency comb at 160 nm using multi-harmonic generation in a non-linear femtosecond enhancement cavity

Author(s): Seres, J.; Seres, E.; Serrat, C.; Young, E. C.; Speck, J. S.; Schumm, T.
Published in: Optics Express, Issue Vol. 27, Issue 5, 2019, Page(s) 6618-6628, ISSN 0000-0000
Publisher: Optica Publishing Group
DOI: 10.1364/oe.27.006618

Continuous Guided Strontium Beam with High Phase-Space Density

Author(s): Chun-Chia Chen, Shayne Bennetts, Rodrigo González Escudero, Benjamin Pasquiou, Florian Schreck
Published in: Physical Review Applied, Issue 12/4, 2019, ISSN 2331-7019
Publisher: American Physical Society
DOI: 10.1103/physrevapplied.12.044014

Superradiant cooling, trapping, and lasing of dipole-interacting clock atoms

Author(s): Christoph Hotter, David Plankensteiner, Laurin Ostermann, Helmut Ritsch
Published in: Optics Express, Issue 27/22, 2019, Page(s) 31193, ISSN 1094-4087
Publisher: Optical Society of America
DOI: 10.1364/oe.27.031193

Lasing on a narrow transition in a cold thermal strontium ensemble

Author(s): Stefan A. Schäffer, Mikkel Tang, Martin R. Henriksen, Asbjørn A. Jørgensen, Bjarke T. R. Christensen, Jan W. Thomsen
Published in: Physical Review A, Issue 101/1, 2020, ISSN 2469-9926
Publisher: American Physical Society
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.101.013819

SAGE: A proposal for a space atomic gravity explorer

Author(s): Guglielmo M. Tino, Angelo Bassi, Giuseppe Bianco, Kai Bongs, Philippe Bouyer, Luigi Cacciapuoti, Salvatore Capozziello, Xuzong Chen, Maria L. Chiofalo, Andrei Derevianko, Wolfgang Ertmer, Naceur Gaaloul, Patrick Gill, Peter W. Graham, Jason M. Hogan, Luciano Iess, Mark A. Kasevich, Hidetoshi Katori, Carsten Klempt, Xuanhui Lu, Long-Sheng Ma, Holger Müller, Nathan R. Newbury, Chris W. Oates, Achim
Published in: The European Physical Journal D, Issue 73/11, 2019, ISSN 1434-6060
Publisher: Springer Verlag
DOI: 10.1140/epjd/e2019-100324-6

Sisyphus optical lattice decelerator

Author(s): Chun-Chia Chen, Shayne Bennetts, Rodrigo González Escudero, Florian Schreck, Benjamin Pasquiou
Published in: Physical Review A, Issue 100/2, 2019, ISSN 2469-9926
Publisher: American Physical Society
DOI: 10.1103/physreva.100.023401

Characterisation and feasibility study for superradiant lasing in 40 Ca atoms

Author(s): A. Gogyan, G. Kazakov, M. Bober, M. Zawada
Published in: Optics Express, Issue 28/5, 2020, Page(s) 6881, ISSN 1094-4087
Publisher: Optical Society of America
DOI: 10.1364/oe.381991

Subradiance in multiply excited states of dipole-coupled V-type atoms

Author(s): Raphael Holzinger, Laurin Ostermann, Helmut Ritsch
Published in: EPL (Europhysics Letters), Issue 128/4, 2019, Page(s) 44001, ISSN 1286-4854
Publisher: Società Italiana di Fisica, EDP Sciences and IOP Publishing
DOI: 10.1209/0295-5075/128/44001

Superradiant lasing in inhomogeneously broadened ensembles with spatially varying coupling

Author(s): Anna Bychek; Christoph Hotter; David Plankensteiner; Helmut Ritsch
Published in: Open Research Europe, Issue 1, 2021, Page(s) 73, ISSN 0000-0000
Publisher: Open Research Europe
DOI: 10.12688/openreseurope.13781.1

QuantumCumulants.jl: A Julia framework for generalized mean-field equations in open quantum systems

Author(s): Plankensteiner, David; Hotter, Christoph; Ritsch, Helmut
Published in: Quantum, Vol 6, p 617 (2022), Issue 6, 2022, Page(s) 617, ISSN 2521-327X
Publisher: Verein zur Förderung des Open Access Publizierens in den Quantenwissenschaften
DOI: 10.48550/arxiv.2105.01657

Laser cooling for quantum gases

Author(s): Florian Schreck; Klaasjan van Druten
Published in: Nature Physics, Issue 17, 2022, Page(s) 1296, ISSN 0000-0000
Publisher: Springer Nature
DOI: 10.1038/s41567-021-01379-w

Continuous multi-step pumping of the optical clock transition in alkaline-earth atoms with minimal perturbation

Author(s): Christoph Hotter; David Plankensteiner; Georgy Kazakov; Helmut Ritsch
Published in: Optic Express, Crossref, Issue 6 Vol. 30, Issue 4,, 2022, Page(s) pp. 5553-5568 (2022), ISSN 1094-4087
Publisher: Optical Society of America
DOI: 10.1364/oe.445976

Multi-reference ab initio calculations of Hg spectral data and analysis of magic and zero-magic wavelengths

Author(s): Anahit Gogyan, Paweł Tecmer, and Michał Zawada
Published in: Optics Express, Issue 29, 2021, Page(s) 8654-8665, ISSN 0000-0000
Publisher: The Optical Society
DOI: 10.1364/oe.416106

Steady-state magneto-optical trap of fermionic strontium on a narrow-line transition

Author(s): Rodrigo González Escudero; Chun-Chia Chen; Shayne Bennetts; Benjamin Pasquiou; Florian Schreck
Published in: Physical Review Research, Issue 3, 2021, Page(s) 033159, ISSN 0000-0000
Publisher: APS
DOI: 10.1103/physrevresearch.3.033159

Continuous narrowband lasing with coherently driven V-level atoms

Author(s): Christoph Hotter; David Plankensteiner; Helmut Ritsch
Published in: New Journal of Physics, Issue 1, 2020, Page(s) 113021, ISSN 0000-0000
Publisher: IOP Publishing Ltd on behalf of the Institute of Physics and Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft
DOI: 10.1088/1367-2630/abc70c

Quantum gases are forever: Achieving continuous Bose-Einstein condensation

Author(s): Rodrigo González Escudero (supervised by F. Schreck)
Published in: 2022, Page(s) 1-140
Publisher: University of Amsterdam

Slowing atoms with a permanent magnet Zeeman slower & investigating fibre phase noise on an optical clock system

Author(s): Richard Barron (supervised by Yeshpal Singh)
Published in: 2022
Publisher: University of Birmingham

Cavity-enhanced optical clocks

Author(s): Stefan Alaric Schäffer
Published in: 2019
Publisher: University of Copenhagen

1000 times closer to a continuous atom laser

Author(s): Shayne Bennetts
Published in: 2019
Publisher: University of Amsterdam

An atomic marble run to unity phase-space density

Author(s): Chun-Chia Chen
Published in: 2019
Publisher: University of Amsterdam

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