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Disruptive sustainable TECHnologies FOR next generation pvWINdows

Periodic Reporting for period 1 - Tech4Win (Disruptive sustainable TECHnologies FOR next generation pvWINdows)

Reporting period: 2019-01-01 to 2019-12-31

Tech4Win aims to develop a very innovative transparent photovoltaic (PV) window based on the combination of an inorganic UV selective multifunctional coating (UV filter + UV selective solar) that is deposited on the first glass of the window, and an organic IR selective solar cell (OPV) that is implemented at the gap spacer of the window. This “tandem inspired structure” will be able to generate on-site renewable energy (PCE ≥ 10%, with a long term goal of ≥ 12%), guaranteeing a high-transparency degree (average visible transparency AVT ≥ 60%, with a long term goal ≥ 70%), achieving a lifetime ≥ 10 years (long term goal ≥ 25 years) and all by a competitive manufacturing costs estimated in 160-200 €/m2.

The main objective of the project is to develop a set of transparent PV window prototypes (Small and Medium sizes) with strong improvements in level of transparency and visual quality in the visible region, energy generation, advanced filtering capacities, thermal behavior and energy impact. They will be exhaustively tested in a relevant environment for demonstrating their feasibility as a smart window. The key concept is based on the capacity to exploit the IR efficiency potential of organic based solutions with the robustness and stability of inorganic thin film concepts combining sustainable and industrial compatible technologies with demonstrated potential for cost reduction and sustainable mass deployment.

The proposed solution will avoid the use of critical raw materials (CRM) ensuring the absence of potential problems for the future supply of the raw materials and allowing for a sustainable transfer to mass production levels. In addition, the devices will be designed through the integration of light management concepts (based on Distributed Bragg Reflectors (DBR)) to reach the challenging targets defined in terms of conversion efficiency and transparency.
The work performed since the beginning of the project and the main results achieved so far are summarized in the following points:

• Definition of requirements and specifications of the glazing system proposed for the Tech4Win window. This has included: i) The analysis, selection and quantification of the key parameters to design and warranty the performance of the Tech4Win glazing system; and ii) The identification and analysis of main standards and regulations related to construction sector standards, safety standards, architectural glass and technical codes of the countries selected as representative of the different weather conditions analyzed in the project.

• Development of IR selective OPV devices, including: i) Development of three types of highly efficient conjugated polymers (WF3, BDTT-DPP and XX3); ii) Development and assessment of first OPV device prototypes showing a promising efficiency of 4.12% using DPP derivative polymers with AVT transparency close to 60%; and iii) Definition of sputtering deposition conditions of SiO2, TiO2, Ag and ITO monolayers for the development of the DBR back reflectors.

• Development of UV multifunctional coatings, including: i) Identification of most promising oxides (ZnO, Zn(O,S)) and chalcogenides (Zn(S,Se)) for the development of UV multifunctional coatings with high transparency (AVT in visible region in 65%-70%, and UV filtering higher than 95%); ad II) Development of UV selective solar cells: First heterojunction devices showing photovoltaic effect have been experimentally demonstrated with Voc up to 450 mV and a promising efficiency of 0.48% with Zn(O,S)/C60 base devices.

• Multifunctional modelling of the UV and IR selective devices and of the Tech4Win window configuration, including: i) The optical and thermal characterization of the layers developed for the implementation of the UV and IR selective devices (in order to obtain the experimental data that are required for the modelling of the devices); and ii) The implementation of the optical models for the UV and IR devices, with the implementation of the simulation tools used for the optical and optoelectronic modelling of the UV and IR selective devices.

• Circular Economy and Industrial scalability: Main activities developed in this period have involved the study of eco-design concepts that have been applied to the first steps of developments in order to have a first general idea of the material and processes used in the project at development scale, in order to make initial recommendations or warnings towards industrialization.

• Dissemination and communication activities developed in this period have included: i) The definition of the Dissemination and Communication strategies of Tech4Win; ii) Launching of initial dissemination & communication activities (project website, project brochure & leaflet, promotional video…), the launching of social media and 1st press releases that have been distributed in different media.

• At Exploitation level, the IPR and Knowledge management strategy has been defined according to the background of each partner, the ownership of the foreground identified and the exploitation agreements among the parties involved. On the other hand, first versions of IRL tool, Tech2Market analysis and Feasibility Study and Exploitation Strategy for all knowledge created in the project, which supposes the cornerstone for the future commercialization strategy of Tech4Win product and services developed, have been accomplished.
The expected results until the end of the project are summarized with the following operative objectives:
• O1: To define a common framework and standard operating procedures in terms of KPIs, requirements and specifications, ensuring consistent inputs and quality outputs.
• O2: To develop optical management strategies (distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) mirror) and device design architectures required to satisfy the PCE (≥ 10%) and light transmission demands of the windows quantified in terms of visual transparency (AVT ≥ 60%) and optical visual quality (CRI ≥ 70).
• O3: To develop device design encapsulation strategies and window architecture concepts compatible with the durability goals defined in the project: lifetime ≥ 10 years.
• O4: To build IR selective solar cell prototypes contributing with a PCE ≥ 7.5% a DBR mirror incrementing the IR cell relative efficiency by 25% and thin film UV selective multifunctional coatings with a demonstrated PCE ≥ 2.5% acting as UV surface filters (UV absorption > 99%).
• O5: To develop sputtering and Roll to Roll (RtR) printing industrial compatible and scalable processes to synthesize thin films based on CRM-free compounds.
• O6: To build modelling approaches to improve the aesthetic added value of the PV window and the implementation of simulation models to assess the passive impact of the PV window.
• O7: To demonstrate the technical feasibility of up-scaling of processes for the fabrication of M format size window prototypes under demanding conditions developing de-manufacturing strategies for circular economy and LCA approaches during the whole lifecycle of the smart window.
• O8: To define a Dissemination & Communication Plan and a Joint Exploitation Plan (including an Individual Exploitation Plan for each Partner) to allow a smooth market uptake of the new products/services.
These results will imply a relevant increase in efficiency, transparency and lifetime in relation to state of the art of wavelength- selective transparent solar cells.
First prototypes of chalcogenide and oxide based UV multifunctional coatings showing high transparen