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Installed adVAnced Nacelle uHbr Optimisation and Evaluation

Periodic Reporting for period 1 - IVANHOE (Installed adVAnced Nacelle uHbr Optimisation and Evaluation)

Reporting period: 2019-10-01 to 2021-03-31

The potential efficiency of current UHBR UltraFan® powerplant installations has not been completely exploited in terms of structures, ground clearance, and weight savings. To enable more novel design solutions, a key enabler would be to investigate more close installation positions for nacelles coupled to wings. However, the close installation will cause highly three-dimensional interference effects over the aft nacelle, which may have a strong impact on the resulting drag and exhaust pressure field pattern. A challenge is that these effects have not been properly addressed in the current nacelle design methodologies. Innovative design and optimization rules accounting for these effects are urgently needed for the installed nacelle and exhausts. In this project, such ‘beyond-of-the-art’ rules are developed to tackle the challenge based on a system of parametric, numerical, and experimental investigations. In response to the topic CfP09 CS2-LPA-01-67, the IVANHOE project addresses this challenge for two mission scenarios, i.e. short/medium range and long range, resulting in a new multi-fidelity optimization method, validated by advanced wind tunnel experiments.

A consortium of an SME, an industry, an R&D institute, and three universities with complementary skills produce this result in close coordination with the topic manager in 36 months. Coordinator CHALMERS provides the design envelope and safeguard thrust/drag performance. HIT09 and UNIPD jointly implement a multi-objective optimization loop to identify optimal nacelle shapes and installation positions. TUB validates the resulting design options with a high fidelity CFD code, complemented by a high fidelity wind tunnel experiment of a Deharde powered nacelle model in DNW’s High-Speed Tunnel.

The project advances the state of the art in nacelle design by smart use of various fidelity level aerodynamic modelling tools enabling fast iterations and down selection of nacelle geometries and locations. Wing/nacelle interference are taken into account. This method is validated by wind tunnel experiments with new and advanced wind tunnel models and measuring techniques. The result of the nacelle optimization for a UHBR installation on the Common Research Model is delivered in full compliance with the call. Moreover, IVANHOE’s provides an improved design method, tools, and facilities for use by the European aviation industry for future aircraft projects, unlocking the full potential of CO2 reduction of UHBR engines while increasing competitiveness by reducing costs for design and testing.
The consortium has been advancing the project with productive outcomes. Some delays, which are related to the pandemic lockdowns, have been remedied thanks to the dedicated work by the partners. The main results are briefly summarized below. The details of the results are documented in the mid-term project technical report.

• The engine cycle modeling for the cruise Mach 0.8 and 0.85 was designed and optimized based on the literature survey and the requirements given by the TM.
• The nacelle design envelope was determined.

• The thrust-drag bookkeeping methods for both CFD and WT tests were developed and validated based on a modified near-field method.

• An air driven simulator (TPS) was down selected.

• The wind-tunnel (WT) test techniques were delivered.

• The 3D baseline nacelle was installed onto the CRM to obtain the baseline WBNP configuration, which had been released.
• The strategy for parameterization of the nacelle geometry was established.
• A DoE study on nacelle shape and position was carried out for each of the flight conditions, Ma=0.85 and Ma=0.8.

• The WT model design of the Peniche and model-wind tunnel interface, as well as the fuselage, was completed.

• The CFD method and solvers have been validated for transonic flow conditions and High-lift flow conditions.
• The 3D geometry of the high-lift aircraft installed with the baseline nacelle at take-off was delivered.

• Tools/methods for collaborative actions: project logo, deliverable template, project website, online repositories, technical review routine.

Four publications have been produced. One more conference paper on the CFD analysis of nacelle installation at take-off is under preparation by TUB, UNIPD and HIT09. This paper will be submitted to 2022 AIAA SciTech Forum.
1. A. Magrini, E. Benini, H.-D. Yao, J. Postma, C. Sheaf. A review of installation effects of ultra-high bypass ratio engines. Progress in Aerospace Sciences, 119: 100680, 2020.
2. A. Magrini, D. Buosi, E. Benini, C. Sheaf, Ultra-high bypass nacelle geometry design space exploration, AIAA conference 2021, Paper No. 2021-0990
3. X. Li, H.-D. Yao. Installation effects on engine design. 3rd ECATS Conference: Making Aviation Environmentally Sustainable, Gothenburg, Sweden, 13-15 Oct. 2020.
4. J. Andersson, T. Grönstedt, H.-D. Yao, Propulsion Installation Modelling for geared Ultra-high bypass ratio engine cycle design. 3rd ECATS Conference: Making Aviation Environmentally Sustainable, Gothenburg, Sweden, 13-15 Oct. 2020.
The project aims at enabling novel mission-optimised installed non-symmetric nacelles for UHBR UltraFan® engines, with particular emphasis on aft nacelle and exhausts. At the end of the project, the following objectives will be achieved:

• A 3D non-symmetric nacelle design approach suitable for novel installations of UltraFan® will be developed based on novel multipoint multi-objective optimisation techniques.
• The optimized designs and installations for a range of nacelle configurations and locations will be validated using transonic wind tunnel tests at cruise conditions.
• The effects on engine performance due to the nacelle installation will be addressed both numerically and experimentally.
• The impact of interference effects caused by alterations in the pressure field due to the nacelle installation will be quantified for appropriate engine matching.
• The physical mechanisms of the flows due to the nacelle installation will be characterized based on experiments and CFD simulations for nacelle pressure and exhaust shock fields.
• The changes of the aft nacelle and exhaust behaviors with the installation at take-off conditions will be understood using CFD simulations.
• Aerodynamic design rules to optimize the close-coupled 3D installation for advanced UHBR aft nacelles and exhausts will be improved and validated.

As planned, the project has achieved objectives 1 and 7. The other objectives are in progress and partly completed. Even though the pandemic has been influencing the project progress for 6 months, the partners have remedied the delay for 3 months.
Surface pressure distribution on the inner and outer sides of the nacelles.
The aircraft at take-off installed with the nacelle development from the present project
Surface pressure distribution on the inner and outer sides of the nacelles.
Surface pressure distribution on the entire aircraft installed with nacelles
Pressure changing near the nacelle from the upstream to downstream