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Integrated Planning of Multi-Energy Systems

Periodic Reporting for period 1 - PlaMES (Integrated Planning of Multi-Energy Systems)

Reporting period: 2019-11-01 to 2021-04-30

The global climate goals and especially the European New Green Deal require a continuous reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by effectively decarbonising the energy system. To reach the climate goals, not just the electricity but also the heat and mobility sector have to be decarbonised, which can only be achieved by coupling different energy sectors. Sustainable energy systems based on renewable energies are becoming increasingly decentralized with smaller scale generation units. Furthermore, they are characterised by volatile generation, which requires further flexibility in energy conversion as well as on transmission and distribution grid level. The EU-funded PlaMES project, provides planning tools and perspectives on how to integrate multiple energy sectors into one interdependent and efficient energy system.
Objective: The general objective of the project is the development of an integrated planning framework for multi-energy systems on a European scale. The objective of the planning framework considers the European climate targets while optimizing the expansion of energy infrastructure and energy generation capacities to find solutions for an efficient and reliable interdependent energy system in 2050. The models being developed within the project will therefore consider the coupling of different energy sectors (electricity, heat, mobility and gas) and calculate cost-optimal energy infrastructure for future energy scenarios. To handle the mathematical complexity of the integrated and holistic energy system planning approach, new solution methods are required. This will be achieved by solving both mathematical and computational challenges in the field of energy system modelling. Thereby, novel mathematical formulations of energy system modelling problems are proposed. The project will provide a new energy system planning tool for different stakeholders, which intends to be used as a decision support to enable a beneficial development of the European energy system. To ensure the applicability of the developed tool, a comprehensive advisory board reviews the intermediate and final results of the project.

Case studies: To show the adequacy and relevance of the overall modelling framework, two case studies will be performed. One case study will focus on Germany with neighbouring countries and investigates the central level of the European energy system. The second case study focuses on a Turkish distribution grid and hence exemplarily analyses the decentral perspective of European energy systems. In both case studies, as much data as possible will be derived from a bottom-up modelling approach.
The first case study, aims at the planning of the Central Energy System, considering the electricity, gas, heat and mobility sector. In an integrated approach, the expansion of generation capacity is combined with the expansion of the electrical transmission grid. The main target of this investigation is the identification of a cost efficient energy system, which is compliant with global as well as European climate goals. The case study will provide the allocation and installed capacity of planned generation capacities as well as required expansion and reinforcement measures of the electrical transmission grid.
The second case study focuses on the allocation of renewable energy sources and further assets within a distribution grid. Based on these allocations, an operational planning of the distribution grid is performed. To minimize resulting system costs on the decentral level, various market coordination mechanisms are taken into account and analyzed. The required expansion and reinforcement measures for ensuring system security are identified by a distribution network expansion planning.
Currently, seven out of eight work packages have been initiated. In Work Package 1, a project management handbook has been released (D1.1) and the yearly progress report has been released (D1.2). Executive board, advisory board, monthly and other meetings have also been organized as part of Work Package 1 and according to the project management handbook.
The functional description of the PlaMES tool including the definition of the scenario framework and the two case studies as well as the mathematical formulation and potential decomposition approaches are outlined by three deliverables in Work Package 2 (D2.1 D2.2 D2.3). The conceptual development of the PlaMES tool forms the basis for the work and the tool development within Work Package 3. The work flow between the tools have been outlined in D3.1. Within the reporting period all suggested tools have been developed to a stage at which we can confidently say that we are able to deliver full-scale tools until the end of the project (as demonstrated in the upcoming D3.2). As two of the central planning tools will foreseeably have to cope with extraordinary problem sizes, Work Package 4 the developed decomposition approaches for the two models are implemented as suggested in D2.3. The final decomposition approaches are showcased in the upcoming D4.1. Currently, measuring the actual performance of the custom solvers is challenging, as large test cases are not available, yet. Nevertheless, the interfaces between model and solver have already been implemented and the structure of the central test case has been outlined in D2.4 (Work Package 2) and is currently being built up. The final tool, comprising models, solvers and interfaces with potential customers, is being outlined in the upcoming D5.1. It showcases how the involved entities exchange data via an online database and how data can be exploited further.
The work carried out in the first half of the project and the ongoing developments are an advance to the state of the art. The integrated energy system modelling approach enables the design of future multi-energy systems on a European scale to reach European climate goals. First and foremost, the interdependencies between relevant energy sectors are investigated while taking an integrated expansion planning of generation and electricity grid infrastructure into account. The analysis of the electrical grid includes all relevant voltage levels between 10 kV and 380 kV as well as DC (direct current) grid infrastructure and no similar integrations are known. The accuracy of the modelling approach will be ensured by pursuing a high temporal resolution as well as a high structural representation of the energy system (compared to competing models that typically aggregate their models to certain regions). A high temporal resolution is required for evaluating the benefit of flexibilities such as storage facilities. The regional representation of the energy system is supported by a bottom-up modelling approach to investigate local restrictions as well. The expansion planning takes not only to direct greenhouse gas emissions, but also indirect emissions from expansion into account. Furthermore, new approaches to scenarios and scenario analyses are investigated. However, the most important approach in this project is that potential customers do not merely receive results, but can view them via a provided web interface. In this way, we enable potential customers to better analyse their results, adapt scenarios, and thus make academic energy system planning tangible and to prospectively include it into real planning processes.