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Car Body Shells, Doors and Interiors

Periodic Reporting for period 1 - CARBODIN (Car Body Shells, Doors and Interiors)

Reporting period: 2019-12-01 to 2020-12-31

In Block 1 of Car Body Shell, the specific objectives are to develop: a new concept of modular multi-material mould, tools that combine machining and 3D technology, co-cured and co-bonded composite parts, multi-material joints and inserts, new smart OOA tooling with sensors, OOA automation concepts, intelligent sensor nodes for predictive maintenance, and modular moulds with 3D printed tools and inserts. In Block 2 of Doors, the specific objectives are to develop: a door leaf manufacturing process / technology, modular tooling that can adapt to geometry changes, reduce the weight of the door system, improve acoustic attenuation and thermal insulation, improve passenger boarding, and reduce the NRC of the door manufacture process. In Block 3 of Interiors, the specific objectives are to develop: modular and aesthetic interior designs, use virtual reality to reduce the time to market and reduce the costs, flexible low-cost manufacturing tools, surveys to identify human-machine interactions, and low voltage printed circuits.
During the first reporting period, Block 1 worked towards the fulfilment of the eight specific objectives, but all remain delayed or partially achieved. Initially CARBODIN relied on several input information from the complementary project PIVOT2, but after all sides agreed on an amendment the partners of CARBODIN undertook many new responsibilities. Now WP1 is to of build a representative section of a passenger wagon, which will enable the original objective of building modular moulds. Within the first reporting period, CG Rail started to use the surface profile of a metallic door design (TRL 9), which was voluntarily offered by MASATS, to design a section of the car body and interior panels. Also, SMT started to use the same metallic door to design a composite door. The new parts design has offered examples where to investigate the co-cured and co-bonded techniques and where to study multi-material joints. In parallel, but towards the predictive maintenance objective, CERTH developed and tested an accelerometer sensor array and an acoustic emission sensor array along with hardware and software (TRL4) to communicate wirelessly via a WiFi protocol. AIMEN also developed a TRL4 Fiber Optical Sensor (FOS) that uses Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG), which will be used to detect strain as a function of temperature or as a function of stress in a composite. EUT has tested the Multi Jet Fusion 3D printing technology to quickly create TRL3 interchangeable mould inserts, which widstand the curing temperatures of the proposed resin infusion process.
In Block 2, the partners have worked towards meeting the specific objectives, but all remain delayed or partially achieved. A certain type of liquid resin infusion, called light RTM, was chosen for the door leaves to reduce the NRC. SMT started to design the composite door. To move towards the fulfilment of an acoustic attenuation of 3 dB and a thermal reduction of 3 W/m2K, DES ART (CADM) designed and simulated a Helmholtz-Resonator-Thermal-Layer concept for the doors or their vicinity. The PIVOT2 TD1.6 leader, DICEA, UIC, and MASATS agreed to develop even further a MASATS ramp/platform boarding equipment (TRL 9) and supply by May 2021 a working mock-up (TRL 6), which will integrate sensors, new hardware, and software. The new boarding equipment will be used in tests with PRM.
In Block 3, the partners have also worked towards meeting the specific objectives, but all remain delayed or partially achieved. A first draft of floor concepts for an aesthetic interior was created and a first concept of the virtual configurator tool was developed. However, when the Collaboration Agreement is signed, CARBODIN expects to receive the confidential information required to finish the floor mock-up, low voltage printed circuits, and virtual reality configurator. In the first reporting period, the HMI tasks, which are being surveyed from drivers across Europe, were defined.
The results of the CARBODIN Project continue to be relevant to the expected impacts required by the topic, but after the Amendment to the GA and settlement of a COLA draft with PIVOT2, the results are now only partly relevant to TD 1.6 and TD1.7. No update is required, because S2R accepted the Amendment terms and COLA draft. There will be no collaboration with PIVOT2 in TD1.3 but CARBODIN will still contribute to reduce weight in car body parts by 20 to 30%, to reduce by 50% the time to manufacture composites, to reduce by 50% the cost to manufacture these composites, and to have no variation in performance when compared to current metallic structures. CARBODIN will achieve the weight reduction impact with the result of Work Packages WP1-5-9, where modular moulds will be used to create a representative section of a passenger wagon made with composites and with the result of WP11 where low-voltage printed circuits will be created to substitute the heavier electrical wiring. Collaboration with PIVOT2 is expected in WP11. The reduction in time to manufacture composites will be achieved in WP3 with the use of dielectric sensors and fiber Bragg grating sensors, which can determine when the resin has cured. The cost to manufacture two different parts will be reduced in WP1-5-9 with the use of modular moulds. And the performance of the new composite parts is expected to be the same because the cross sections will be increased without exceeding the targeted weight.
The expected impact of the modular mould of WP5 will not contribute to TD1.6 as agreed in the COLA draft, but CARBODIN will still comply with the impact proposed in the GA for the doors market. CARBODIN will design a composite door and a modular mould to build the door and demonstrate a reduction in 30% labour and manufacturing costs. The composite door will weigh 10% less than the benchmark train door. In WP6, where collaboration is expected according to the COLA draft, CARBODIN designed a Helmholtz-Resonator-Thermal-Layer concept to meet the expected impact of reducing thermal conductivity by 3 W/m2K and 3 dB of noise in the vicinity of the door. In WP7, where collaboration with PIVOT2 is also expected, CARBODIN will develop even further a ramp/platform equipment from MASATS to let sensors help determine if the device should stay horizontal or continue to extend into a ramp. With the integration of sensors, new hardware, and software, CARBODIN expects to reduce threshold heights and gaps from 50 to 10 mm, reduce the number of noises produced by PRM devices by 10%, lower the operational time to enter by 20%, reduce the opening and closing time by 10%, increase by 15% the passenger confort perception and by 20% the accessibility of PRM. Also, with the new ramp/platform the waiting time of trains at a station will be reduced by 5%.
The expected impact of the modular moulds of WP9 will not contribute to TD1.7 but both PIVOT2 and CARBODIN have agreed not to collaborate. However, the modular moulds of WP9 will meet the target of a 20 to 30% weight reduction, because the parts will be built with the use of composites. In WP8, where a collaboration with PIVOT2’s TD1.7 is expected, CARBODIN will develop a virtual reality configurator for the interior of the train to achieve the expected target of 50% cost reduction of layout change. Also, in WP8, a self-supporting modular floor will be designed to reach the expected target of 30% reduction in the cost of the refurbishment operation.
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