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Small Air Transport (SAT) - GAM 2020

Periodic Reporting for period 2 - GAM-2020-SAT (Small Air Transport (SAT) - GAM 2020)

Reporting period: 2021-01-01 to 2021-12-31

Today, there is a need to improve European mobility in remote areas using small aircraft. These mobility needs must be obtained reducing environmental impact, paving the way of aviation decarbonitation on short range routes. Today, there is no available solution matching mobility needs and environmental goals at affordable costs (FlightPath 2050 ""d2d 4h"" challenge, whereby "90% of travellers within Europe are able to complete their journey, door-to-door within 4 hours").
The Small Air Transport (SAT) Initiative proposed in Clean Sky 2 represents the Research & Development (R&D), interests of European Manufacturers to develop green technologies for future affordable small aircraft (both passenger and cargo use), belonging to European Aviation Safety Agency Certification Specifications-23 (EASA´s CS-23) regulatory base. This initiative includes dozens of Industrial Companies (including Small Medium Enterprises), Research Centres and Universities, covering the full supply chain (aircraft integrators, engine and systems manufacturers, research organizations).
SAT activities in 2021 focused on:
1) Integration of technologies (composite wing and nacelle, affordable metallic fuselage, reliable and more efficient small turbine engine, more electric systems, fly-by-wire flight control, safe and confortable passenger cabin, affordable systems for single pilot operation cockpit) developed within Clean Sky 2 Integrated Technologi Demonstrators (ITDs) at aircraft level, into Green 19-seats Entry Into Service 2025 (EIS2025) platform.
2) Development of an Electric-Hybrid Short Take-Off and Landing (E-STOL) 19-seats Commuter a/c Entry Into Service 2032 (EIS2032) targeting an additional 30% reduction in CO2 and NOX emissions.
3) SAT demonstrators maturation to allow execution of lab/flight tests of SAT demos (aircraft level 0; smart composite wing with structural health monitoring system; safe&comfortable cabin).
The following key steps were made during 2021:
• Management and coordination activities of SAT studies, interface with other SAT-related activities performed within other Integrated Technology Demonstrators (Airframe, Engine, and Systems), and support to Technology Evaluator (TE) analyses.
Relevant Dissemination actions have been completed with the participation in the 11th EASN Virtual Conference on “Innovation in Aviation & Space to the Satisfaction of the European Citizens” (September, 1-3, 2021). Moreover, a peer-reviewed paper has been accepted in 2021 and will be published in open access in 2022.
• Two aircraft configurations have been analysed:
o Green 19-seats EIS2025 (Entry Into Service 2025). For this configuration, engine data provided by MAESTRO Project (belonging to Engine ITD) have been received and post-processed. Furthermore, the revision of the configuration matured in 2019 has been completed to include updated aircraft (a/c) weights based on CS2 Technologies CDR outcomes. Preliminary mission analyses have been carried out on the updated configuration. Results show that the original targets (-20% CO2 and NOX emissions for the design mission at 230 KTAS, 800 nm range) are met.
o E-STOL EIS2032 (Entry Into Service 2032). The configuration integrates hybrid power train developed within MAESTRO project, and technologies coming from Airframe and Systems ITD. Overall architecture has been finalized, preliminary allocation studies and aerodynamic analyses have been carried out.
• Support to TE and contributed in the preparation of the Synopsis document, reporting the state of progress towards the high level objectives of Clean Sky 2 Public-Private-Partnership established by the European Commission in 2014.
• Demonstrators progress:
o SAT D1 "Aircraft Level 0" Preliminary Design Review finalized.
o SAT D2 "Smart wing with Structural Health Monitoring" Preliminary Design Review finalized.
o SAT D3 "Safe and comfortable cabin” Test Phase 1 integrating Tactical Separation System, Advanced Weather Awareness System, Flight Reconfigurable System and Compact Computing Platform has been successfully accomplished.
SAT TA addresses market innovations to reduce small aircraft operational cost and environmental impact, ensuring good levels of operational safety, to revitalize European market in the small commuter category.
In particular, the following Beyond State-of-the-Art technologies are addressed:

1) Low cost composite wing box and engine nacelle using Out of Autoclave (OoA) technology, Liquid Resin Infusion (LRI) and advance automation process.
2) Innovative high lift device (blowing flap), able to allow aircraft operations from short airfields (<600m).
3) Affordable small aircraft manufacturing of metallic fuselage by means of Friction Stir Welding (FSW) and Laser Metal Deposition (LMD).
4) Affordable fly-by-wire architecture for small aircraft (CS23 certification rules).
5) More electric systems replacing pneumatic and hydraulic aircraft systems (high voltage Electrical Power Generation and Distribution System, hybrid de-ice system, landing gears and brakes).
6) Advanced avionics for small aircraft, to reduce pilot workload, paving single pilot operations for 19 seats.
7) Advanced cabin comfort with new interiors materials and more comfortable seats.
8) New generation of turboprop engine with reduced fuel consumption, emissions, noise and maintenance costs for 19 seats aircraft.

The preliminary integration of the abovementioned technologies into the Green Loop 2 aircraft configuration shows that original Clean Sky 2 targets in terms of both CO2 and NOX emission reduction are matched for the design mission (800 nm, 230 KTAS) are met, paving the way to the introduction of an affordable and green small European commuter in 2025.
19-seats Green aircraft flying.
19-seats Green aircraft mission analysis preiminary results.
E-STOL EIS2032 flying.
SAT D3 Test Phase 1.