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Coordinating and synchronising multimodal transport improving road, rail, water and air transport through increased automation and user involvement

Periodic Reporting for period 1 - ORCHESTRA (Coordinating and synchronising multimodal transport improving road, rail, water and air transport through increased automation and user involvement)

Reporting period: 2021-05-01 to 2022-10-31

The problem addressed by ORCHESTRA is that traffic caused by transport has many negative effects. There are congestions, delays, emissions and negative impacts on urban environments, and in case of disruptions, there may be huge consequences on the efficiency and timeliness. These challenges are hard to handle due to lack of coordination between the different transport modes.

The long-term vision of ORCHESTRA is a future where it is easy to coordinate and synchronise the traffic management of all modes to cope with diverse demands and situations. The overall objective of ORCHESTRA is to provide European policy makers, public authorities, transport providers and citizens with new knowledge and technical and organisational solutions to enhance collaboration and synchronising of operations within and across transport modes.

The project will (ORCHESTRA's 5 specific objectives):

O1. Establish a common understanding of multimodal traffic management concepts and solutions, within and across different modes, for various stakeholders and multiple contexts

O2. Define a Multimodal Traffic Management Ecosystem (MTME) where traffic managements in different modes and areas (rural and urban) are coordinated to contribute to a more balanced and resilient transport system, bridging current barriers and silos

O3. Support MTME realisation and deployments, through the provision of tools, models, and guidelines – including the integration of connected and automated vehicles and vessels (CAVs)

O4. Validate and calibrate MTME for organisational issues, functionality, capability and usability

O5. Maximise outreach and uptake of project results through strong stakeholder involvement
Within the project's first 18 months significant progress has been achieved towards the project's expected results:

Target vision for multimodal traffic management (MTM) - Deliverable D2.1 gives the initial target vision of a MTM ecosystem within the 2030 and 2050 horizons, both for freight and passenger transportation.

Environmental analysis and drivers - Pre-Studies have been provided on legal and regulatory status quo; actor and market analysis; security and safety issues; psycho-sociological, ethical aspects, and acceptance; and technical and organisational considerations (D2.2).

Scenarios for MTM - Deliverable D2.3 refines the target vision through several detailed MTM scenarios. These target vision scenarios describe the interactions, the data flow, between the main stakeholders of the MTM.

Use cases for MTM - An initial version of a Polycentric Multimodal Architecture (PMA) has been provided. The PMA describes the system of interest with respect to a multimodal traffic management ecosystem (MTME), including the stakeholders and their concerns (D3.1).

Technical Enabling Tools - Initial version of the software tools to be used in Living Labs and simulations have been prototyped (D4.1).

Simulation Architecture - A description of the simulation design for a MTME, covering different levels of abstraction, have been provided (D5.1).

Plan for the Living Labs - A plan for ORCHESTRA's two Living Labs has been developed. This includes a description of the stakeholders involved, tools to be used, systems to be integrated, scenarios to addressed, use cases to be piloted, and training sessions to be accomplished (D5.3).

Evaluation handbook - The evaluation approach and KPAs and KPIs to be used for the evaluation of the multimodal traffic management ecosystem (MTME) are defined as well as initial data collection methods and plans for data analysis (D6.1).
ORCHESTRA's main advancements beyond state-of-the-art are related to four focus areas:

* Defining a Multimodal Traffic Management Ecosystem (MTME). This MTME is facilitated by: 1) a Polycentric Multimodal Architecture (PMA) specifying how systems collaborate. 2) Flexible organisational and business models. 3) Simulation and training tools. 4) Policy and regulatory recommendations. 5) Data governance and sharing framework.

* Enabling traffic orchestration for supporting optimal traffic flows, adapted to current and foreseen situations and societal aspects. Data on ongoing and planned transports as well as other issues that may affect the traffic will be monitored and used in decision support and to facilitate resilience.

* Supporting coordination across modes and networks, bridging current silos between modes, and ensuring best possible utilisation of transport system as a whole.

* Leveraging new traffic management measures, that supports more optimal multimodal transport services and more efficient fleet operations. This includes the integration of services provided by connected and automated vehicles/vessels (CAVs). Transport operations will be guided and controlled according to pre-defined rules and trade-offs between different optimisation targets.

The project is validating and evaluating the multimodal traffic management concepts and related tools in two Living Labs (in Norway and Italy) and through simulations. The scope covers both road, rail, water and air transport. The Italian Living lab is focusing on traffic orchestration for the mobility of people, while the Norwegian Living lab is focusing on traffic orchestration for freight. The Living labs will be supported by simulations to enhance evaluations.

The project's results shall contribute to more optimal utilisation of transport networks and efficient multimodal transport services, both in rural and urban areas. The key results expected from the project are:

R1. Knowledge on evolving needs, requirements, and feasibility from the perspective of diverse stakeholders (e.g. fleet operators, network operators, technology providers, authorities). This includes analysis of barriers, opportunities, acceptance and social impact.

R2. Policy and strategy white paper and roadmap, providing recommendations to policy makers for deployment of MTME and recommendations regarding regulations and standardisation.

R3. A polycentric multimodal architecture (PMA) specifying how the system components collaborate and interact, taking into account safety, security and resilience.

R4. Lessons learned from MTME pilots, simulations and trials addressing.

R5. Enabling toolkit supporting the realisation of MTME comprising: a.) Decision support and traffic management prototypes for operative traffic management. b.) Training modules and guidelines on multimodal operational traffic management.

R6. Deployment toolkit supporting the roll-out of MTME comprising guidelines for multi-actor, organisational and business models sensitive to time, local situation, mobility needs and transport services, policies, regulation, market and culture.

The results of ORCHESTRA will contribute to realise the ambitious agenda for transforming the European transport sector, as addressed by the Transport White Paper. In particular, ORCHESTRA will contribute to:

* Optimising the performance of multimodal logistic chains, including by making greater use of more energy-efficient modes

* Increasing the efficiency of transport and of infrastructure use

* Resilience in the transport system

* Seamless door-to-door mobility
Multimodal Traffic Management Ecosystem (MTME)