The objective of the project is to provide knowledge and objective quality criteria to indicate possibilities enabling the participants to develop and apply technologies leading to cereal products with attractive nutritive and sensory properties.
Research has been carried out into the technology needed to produce attractive and nutritious cereal products. The possibility of reducing the level of saturated fat while maintaining the sensory characteristics of high fat products was investigated.
On a molecular level interactions between starch (wheat flour component), water, oil and polar lipids have been studied by differential scanning calorimetry. No effect of oil on the gelatinization of starch could be found, but significant effects on retrogradation occurred.
On a technology level product preparation has been studied. Starch gelatinization and protein denaturation in different bakery products were investigated. Large differences were found between product types, but no differences occurred between low fat and high fat versions. Differences in product types could be explained mainly by the water conent of the doughs. A higher water content provided more gelatinization and more denatured protein. With respect to the bevaviour of starch in the product and dough samples, an effect of product preparation was found.
On an ingredient level emulsifiers, oat fibre and starch product were tested for their capacity as fat replacer in different bakery products. Maltodextrins (starch product) can be used to reduce the fat content of heavy fruited loafs ('stollen'). Emulsifiers were tested in biscuits and oat fibres can be used in cake types. The function and working mechanism of these ingredients meeds further investigation.
It can be concluded that the insight into the interaction of flour components with fat and of starch with oil and polar lipids has increased. High fat cereal products and different ingredients are phenomenologically characterized.
Emphasis will be given to indicate possibilities to reduce the level of (saturated) fat, while maintaining the sensory characteristics of the high-fat cereal products.
From the general aim the following objectives are derived:
1. To increase the understanding of the structure of cereal products and especially of the role of lipids. Emphasis will be given to the translation of recent findings of fundamental research into the area of cereal products, especially those products with fat levels over 10%;
2. To assess objectively the effect of product composition and especially the type and amount of lipids, on structure and sensory quality. To this end, physical as well as sensory methods will be used and the correlation between them will be established. When required the assessment methods will be selected, adapted and developed.
3. To indicate possibilities for obtaining products combining the attractive sensory quality of high fat cereal products with a reduced (saturated) fat content. Emphasis will be given to the study and evaluation of new or modified technology and of natural raw materials.
Funding SchemeCSC - Cost-sharing contracts
9607 PT Foxhol
RG2 9AT Reading
RG6 2LA Reading
3336 LE Zwijndrecht