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ANALYSIS OF EXPOSURE IN RADIOLOGY AND OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION

Objective


Studies on the assessment of radiological exposure have included:
collection of dose values under routine conditions;
performance of field studies in radiodiagnosis;
development of realistic mathematical phantoms from computer programs for the Alderson Rando phantom for babies, children and adults;
production of computerised tomography (CT) data files;
in therapy, calculation of organ and tissue doses outside the target region from standardised and realistic mathematical phantoms and patients;
tentative quantification of radiological risk.
PRESENT COMPUTED DATA ON PATIENTS' EXPOSURE IN RADIOLOGY IS RESTRICTED TO CALCULATIONS MADE WITH NON-REALISTIC AND RIGID MATHEMATICAL PHANTOMS. NO STUDIES HAVE BEEN MADE WITH REALISTIC 3D PHANTOMS AND FOR NON-RIGID POSITIONING OF THE LIMBS, HEAD AND ORGANS.NO STUDIES HAVE BEEN MADE IN WHICH SEMI-REALISTIC MATHEMATICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL MODELS OF THE HUMAN HEAD AND TORSO HAVE BEEN DIRECTLY COMPARED, WITH RESPECT TO ABSORBED DOSE DISTRIBUTION. NO REALISTIC MATHEMATICAL PHANTOMS OF BABIES, INFANTS AND CHILDREN ARE AVAILABLE. ON THE OTHER HAND, THE MIRD-5 TYPE MATHEMATICAL ADULT MALE AND FEMALE PHANTOMS HAVE PROVEN THE USEFULNESS OF MONTE CARLO CALCULATION METHODS FOR DETERMINING ORGAN AND TISSUE DOSES FROM DIAGNOSTIC EXPOSURES. THEREFORE NEW MATHEMATICAL PHANTOMS WILL BE CONSTRUCTED FROM COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY SCAN FILES HAVING A REALISTIC HUMAN FORM AT ALL AGES AND FOR BOTH SEXES. WITH THE SAME METHOD IT IS ALSO POSSIBLE TO CONSTRUCT A WHOLE REFERENCE FAMILY OF REALISTIC PHANTOMS RANGING FROM A BABY TO ADULTS. IT IS CLEAR THAT THE SKELETAL STRUCTURE AND POSITION OF ORGANS AND THE SKIN WILL BE PROPERLY MODELLED IN SUCH PHANTOMS. THIS WILL LEAD TO DATA NEEDED FOR A REVISION OF THE REFERENCE MAN FOR EXTERNAL IRRADIATION.
USING THE REALISTIC ADULT PHANTOMS THE ABSORBED DOSES FOR TYPICAL MEDICAL EXPOSURES WILL BE DETERMINED FOR PATIENT UPRIGHT POSITIONS AND AS THE POSITION OF LIMBS, ETC. CAN BE ADJUSTED BEFORE CT SCANNING, IT IS INTENDED TO PERFORM SOME CALCULATIONS FOR NON-UPRIGHT DIAGNOSTIC POSITIONS.
COMPARISON WILL BE MADE BETWEEN THE RESULTS ACHIEVED WITH THE REALISTIC AND THE HITHERTO EXISTING MIRD-5 PHANTOMS. IT IS POSSIBLE ALSO IN ACCIDENT AND THERAPY SITUATIONS TO PERFORM REALISTIC DOSE CIRCULATIONS FOR THE INDIVIDUAL PERSON, SUBJECT TO THE AVAILABILITY OF THE CT FILE DATA.
USING THE GSF MODIFIED MIRD-5 OR NEW REALISTIC REFERENCE MATHEMATICAL PHANTOMS AND CONSIDERING ORGANS OR TISSUES OUTSIDE THE TARGET REGION IN RADIATION THERAPY FOR NON-ALIGNEMENT PROCESSES, IT IS PLANNED TO QUANTIFY THE RADIOLOGICAL RISK.
THE ASSESSMENT OF EXPOSURE DATA OF X-RAY APPARATUS BY FIELD SURVEYS OF RADIOLOGISTS PRACTISING OUTSIDE AND IN HOSPITALS WILL BE CONTINUED. IN ADDITION TO WHAT HAS BEEN STUDIED UP TO NOW COMPUTER ASSISTED TOMOGRAPHY THORAX AND PELVIS EXAMINATIONS WILL ALSO BE CONSIDERED. THE FINDINGS WILL STATISTICALLY BE ANALYSED AND FOR INTERPRETATION BE COMPLETED BY SUPPLEMENTARY DATA FROM THE AUTHORITIES. THE DOSES ASSESSED UNDER PRACTICAL CONDITIONS WILL SERVE ALSO AS IMPUT DATA FOR QUALITY ASSURANCE CONSIDERATIONS.
ATTENTION IS FOCUSSED TO A CLOSE COORDINATION OF THE STUDY PERFORMANCES WITH THE ORDER CONTRACT PATNERS WORKING ON THE SAME SUBJECT, IN ORDER TO ACHIEVE COMPARABLE RESULTS WITHIN THE COMMUNITY, FOR OPTIMIZED BENEFIT OF THE PROGRAMME TO THE POPULATION IN THE EC.

Funding Scheme

CSC - Cost-sharing contracts

Coordinator

GSF - FORSCHUNGSZENTRUM FUER UMWELT UND GESUNDHEIT GMBH
Address
Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1
85764 Neuherberg
Germany