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RADIONUCLIDE TRANSFERT FACTOR FOR HUMAN MILK

Objective



FROM MAY 1986 TILL THE END OF 1988 A RESEARCH ON HUMAN MILK CONTAMINATION IN ROME AND IN THE LATIUM DISTRICT HAS BEEN CONDUCTED.ABOUT 80 MILK SAMPLES HAVE BEEN COLLECTED-EACH FROM 5-15 NURSING MOTHERS IN THE FIRST WEEK AFTER DELIVERY - AND ANALYZED BY GAMMA SPECTROMETRY.CAESIUM 137 AND CAESIUM 134 CONCENTRATION AND,DURING THE FIRST PERIOD,IODINE 131 CONCENTRATION,MEASURED IN THE ABOVE MENTIONED AREAS,WERE MUCH LOWER IN HUMAN THAN IN COW'S MILK.THE EFFECTIVE DOSE EQUIVALENTS CALCULATED FOR INFANTS BORN AT THE END OF APRIL 1986 AND IN THE FOLLOWING MONTHS WERE NEGLIGIBLE (1,2,3).

IN ORDER TO EXTEND THE SIGNIFICIANCE OF THE RESEARCH,A NEW RESEARCH PROGRAM (IN COLLABORATION WITH A STAFF OF PHYSICIANS FROM MATERNAL HOSPITAL IN NOTHERN ITALY) HAS BEEN DEVELOP.ITS MAIN AIMS ARE:
1) TO INVESTIGATE THE DIETS OF PREGNANT AND NURSING WOMEN (ON WHICH UP TO NOW NO SATISFACTORY DATA EXIST) IN ORDER TO ASSESS THE CAESIUM TRANSFER FACTOR FROM FOOD TO MATERNAL MILK;
2) TO EVALUATE THE CAESIUM CONCENTRATION IN THE MILK OF SINGLE WOMEN OF THE SAME AREA,IN ORDER TO ASSESS THE RANGE OF VARIATION DUE TO DIFFERENT DIETS OR METABOLIC FACTORS;
3) TO COMPARE THE CAESIUM CONCENTRATION IN THE FIRST WEEK MILK WITH THAT OF FIRST AND SECOND MONTH MILK,DUE TO THEIR DIFFERENT COMPOSITION.
REGARDING THE COMPARISON OF CAESIUM CONCENTRATION IN MILK OF DIFFERENT LACTATING PERIODS,ABOUT 15 NURSING MOTHYERS WILL BE SELECTED.EACH ONE WILL COLLECT 15 ML OF MILK ON THE 4TH,30TH AND 60TH DAY AFTER DELIVERY.
AT THE END OF COLLECTION THE MILK COLLECTED ON THESE THREE OCCASIONS WILL BE MIXED TO OBTAIN THREE SAMPLES.
THE MILK OF "LOST PERSONS" WILL BE EXCLUDED.CONTROL SAMPLES WILL BE COLLECTED FROM THREE GROUPS OF MOTHERS ON THEIR 4TH DAY AFTER DELIVERY,THE SAME DAYS THE GROUP UNDER STUDY EFFECTS THE COLLECTION,IN ORDER TO MEASURE THE VARIATION OF CAESIUM CONCENTRATION WITH TIME.AS FAR AS THE DIET INVESTIGATION AND THE CAESIUM VARIATION RANGE ASSESSMENT,50 WOMEN WILL BE INVOLVED,IN ORDER TO BE SURE TO HAVE DATA AT LEAST FOR 30 CASES.THE WOMEN WILL BE SELECTED AMONG THOSE WHO FOLLOW THE RESPNRATORY AUTOGENY TRAINING COURSE BEFORE DELIVERY.IN A FIRST ORAL INTERVIEW THE AMOUNT OF FOOD (MILK,MEAT,VEGETABLES,ETC.) USUALLY EATEN WILL BE QUANTIFIED.THE WOMEN WILL ALSO RECEIVE A SERIES OF FORMS,REGARDING THE TYPE OF FOOD EATEN,TO BE FILLED IN EACH DAY FOR A WEEK EVERY MONTH,DURING THE LAST MONTHS OF PREGNANCY AND OF THE BEGINNING OF LACTATION.FURTHERMORE THEY WILL BE ASKED TO COLLECT 15 ML OF MILK EACH DAY FROM THE 10TH TO THE 450TH DAY AFTER DELIVERY.AT THE SAME TIME A SELECTION OF THE MAIN FOOD DISTRIBUTED IN THE AREA WILL BE COLLECTED.
ALL THE MATERNAL MILK FOOD SAMPLES WILL BE GAMMA MEASURED WITH HIGH PURITY GE SPECTROMETERS.THE TRANSFER FACTORS OF CAESIUM FROM FOOD TO HUMAN MILK WILL BE CALCULATED.HOWEVER IT IS WELL KNOWN THAT THE RESULT WILL CONTAIN HIGH UNCERTAINTY DUE TO THE DIFFICULTY IN OBTAINING AN EXACT EVALUATION OF THE CAESIUM CONTENT IN DIET AND,EVENTUALLY,TO THE VARIABILITY OF METABOLIC FACTORS.ONCE SIGNIFICANT DATA REGARDING THE DIET OF PREGNANT AND NURSING MOTHERS HAVE BEEN OBTAINED,THE CAESIUM TRANSFER FACTOR WILL BE EVALUATED:
1) COMPARING HUMAN MILK DATA OF THAT AREA (MEASURED DURING 1986 AND 1987 BY THIS RESEARCH GROUP) WITH THE FOOD CONTAMINATION DATA OF THE SAME AREA (COLLECTED BY THE LOCAL HEALTH AUTHORITIES DURING THE SAME PERIOD);
2) USING THE FOOD AND HUMAN MILK CONTAMINATION DATA OF THE LATIUM DISTRICT ,AFTER CHECKING THE POSSIBLE DIFFERENCES IN LOCAL DIET.

IN 1990,WHEN THE STRONTIUM MEASUREMENTS WILL BE SET UP,AN ASSESSMENT OF STRONTIUM TRANSFER FACTOR COULD ALSO BE MADE.

Funding Scheme

CSC - Cost-sharing contracts

Coordinator

Head of the Unit of Foodborne Zoonoses and Veterinary Epidemiology
Address
Viale Regina Elena 299
00161 Rome
Italy